Knack, Stephen and Kropf, Martha (2003): Viewers like you: community norms and contributions to public broadcasting. Published in: Political Researcg Quarterly , Vol. 56, No. 2 (June 2003): pp. 187-197.
Download (236kB) | Preview
The logic of collective action (Olson 1965) suggests that public broadcasting may be underprovided, because non-contributors are not excluded from receiving the benefits. Why do so many individuals voluntarily contribute to public television, even though they can obtain the benefits of public television without contributing? We explore the hypothesis that giving to public broadcasting is determined in part by the strength of "civic norms" that limit the opportunistic behavior of individuals in large-numbers prisoners' dilemma settings. We also explore a variety of other explanations for charitable giving and collective action, including group size, tax deductibility, crowd out, and selective incentives. Our findings provide evidence linking civic norms and giving to public broadcasting. Education and income have indirect effects through strengthening civic norms. We find some evidence that selective incentives increase the average size of contributions among those who contribute.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Viewers like you: community norms and contributions to public broadcasting|
|Keywords:||collective action, selective incentives, norms, free riding, social capital, public goods|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making
H - Public Economics > H4 - Publicly Provided Goods > H41 - Public Goods
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z13 - Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology ; Social and Economic Stratification
|Depositing User:||Stephen Knack|
|Date Deposited:||06. Dec 2010 20:15|
|Last Modified:||31. Dec 2015 06:36|
Abrams, Burton, and Mark Schmitz. 1984. “The Crowding-Out Effect of Governmental Transfers on Private Charitable Contributions: Cross-Section Evidence.” National Tax Journal 37: 563-568.
Abrams, Burton and Mark Schmitz. 1978. “The ‘Crowding-Out’ Effect of Governmental Transfers on Private Charitable Contributions.” Public Choice 33: 30-39.
All-Station Cume Report: Based on 1996 NSI County Coverage Data.1996. Nielsen Media Research: New York.
Andreoni, James. 1993. “An Experimental Test of the Public-Goods Crowding-Out Hypothesis.” The American Economic Review 83: 1317-1327.
Andreoni, James. 1990. “Impure Altruism and Donations to Public Goods: A Theory of Warm-Glow Giving.” Economic Journal 100: 464-477.
Brehm, John and Wendy Rahn. 1997. “Individual-Level Evidence for the Causes and Consequences of Social Capital.” American Journal of Political Science 41: 999-1023.
Charlton, Wendy. 1997. “Perceptions of Commercial Activities in Public Broadcasting: Results from a 1997 National Survey.” http://www.cpb.org/library/researchnotes/ SECTIONA.HTML. Washington, DC: Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
Clotfelter, Charles. 1990. “The Impact of Tax Reform on Charitable Giving: A 1989 Perspective.” In Do Taxes Matter? The Impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, ed. Joel Slemrod. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Clotfelter, Charles. 1985. Federal Tax Policy and Charitable Giving. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Coleman, James S. 1990. Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Colema, James S. 1987. “Norms as Social Capital.” in Gerald Radnitzky and Peter Bernholz, eds. Economic Imperialism: The Economic Method Applied Outside the Field of Economics. New York: Paragon House Publishers.
Couper, Mick, Eleanor Singer, and Richard A. Kulka. 1998. “Participation in the 1990 Decennial Census: Politics, Privacy, Pressures.” American Politics Quarterly 26: 59-80.
Crawford, Sue E.S. and Elinor Ostrom. 1995. “A Grammar of Institutions.” American Political Science Review 89: 582-600.
DiPasquale, Denise and Edward Glaeser. 1999. “Incentives and Social Capital: Are Homeowners Better Citizens?” Journal of Urban Economics, 45: 354-84.
Elster, Jon. 1989. The Cement of Society: A Study of Social Order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Erikson, Robert S., Gerald C. Wright and John McIver. 1993. Statehouse Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Goetze, Linda, T.F. Glover, and B. Biswas. 1993. “The Effects of Group Size and Income on Contributions to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.” Public Choice 77: 407-414.
Green, John C., James L. Guth, Corwin E. Smidt and Lyman A. Kellstedt. 1996. Religion and the Culture Wars: Dispatches From the Front. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
Hardin, Russell. 1982. Collective Action. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Horowitz, David. 1991. “The Politics of Public Television,” Commentary, 92:25-32.
Kingma, Bruce Robert. 1989. “An Accurate Measure of the Crowd-out Effect, Income Effect, and Price Effect for Charitable Contributions.” Journal of Political Economy 97: 1197-1207.
Knack, Stephen. 1992. “Civic Norms, Social Sanctions and Voter Turnout.” Rationality and Society. 4: 133-156.
Knack, Stephen. forthcoming. “Social Capital and the Quality of Government: Evidence From the States.” American Journal of Political Science.
Knack, Stephen and Philip Keefer. 1997. “Does Social Capital Have an Economic Payoff? A Cross-Country Investigation.” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112,1252-1288.
Konz, Kenneth A. 1999. Membership/Donor Lists With Political Organizations. Audit Assignment No. SR99-07, Report No. 902. September 9, 1999. Office of the Inspector General.
Marwell, Gerald and Ruth E. Ames. 1979. “Experiments on the Provision of Public Goods, I. Resources, Interest, Group Size and the Free-Rider Problem.” American Journal of Sociology 84: 1335-1360.
Mitchell, Robert Cameron. 1979. "National Environmental Lobbies and the Apparent Illogic of Collective Action." in Clifford S. Russell, ed., Collective Decicion Making: Applications From Public Choice Theory. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 87-121.
Nie, Norman, Jane Junn and Kenneth Stehlik-Barry. 1996. Education and Democratic Citizenship in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ostrom, Elinor. 1998. “A Behavioral Approach to the Rational Choice Theory of Collective Action, Presidential Address, American Political Science Association, 1997.” American Political Science Review 92: 1-22.
Ostrom, Elinor. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Public Broadcasting Service. 1994. DMA Market Profiles. Alexandria, VA: Public Broadcasting Service.
Putnam, Robert D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Putnam, Robert D. 1995. “Tuning In, Tuning Out: The Strange Disappearance of Social Capital in America.” PS: Political Science and Politics XXVIII: 664-683.
Putnam, Robert D. 1993 Making Democracy Work. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Ribar, David C. and Mark O. Wilhelm. 1995. “Charitable Contributions to International Relief and Development.” National Tax Journal 48: 229-244.
Rosenstone, Steven J. and John Mark Hansen. 1993. Mobilization, Participation and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Rowland, Willard D. 1993. “Public Service Broadcasting in the United States: Its Mandate, Institutions, and Conflicts” in Robert K. Avery, ed. Public Service Broadcasting in a Multichannel Environment: The History and Survival of an Ideal. New York: Longman.
Schiff, Jerald. 1990. Charitable Giving and Government Policy: An Economic Analysis. New York: Greenwood Press. Schwer, R. Keith and Rennae Daneshvary. 1995. “Willingness to Pay for Public Television and the Advent of “Look-Alike” Cable Television Channels: A Case Study.” Journal of Media Economics 8: 95-109.
Smith, Vincent H., Michael R. Kehoe, and Mary E. Cremer. 1995. “The Private Provision of Public Goods: Altruism and Voluntary Giving.” Journal of Public Economics 58:107- 126.
Sugden, Robert. 1984. “Reciprocity: The Supply of Public Goods Through Voluntary Contributions.” Economic Journal 94: 772-787.
Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman and Henry E. Brady. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.