Akbari, Ather H. and Rankaduwa, Wimal and Kiani, Adiqa (2009): Demand for Public Health Care in Pakistan. Published in: Pakistan Development Review , Vol. 8, No. 2 : pp. 141-154.
Download (292kB) | Preview
A health care demand model is estimated for each province in Pakistan to explain the outpatient visits to government hospitals over the period 1989-2006. The explanatory variables include the number of government hospitals per capita, doctors’ fee per visit at a private clinic, income per capita, the average price of medicine and the number of outpatient visits per capita in the previous period. All variables are significant determinants of the demand for health care in at least one province but their signs, magnitudes and the levels of significance vary. These variations may be attributed to cultural, social and religious factors that vary across provinces. Variations in health care quality offered at public hospitals may also be a factor. These factors and improved accessibility of health care facilities should be the focus of public policy aimed at increasing the usage of public sector health care facilities in Pakistan.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Demand for Public Health Care in Pakistan|
|Keywords:||Health care demand in developing countries, social policy in developing countries; utilization of public health care facilities; time series analysis of health care demand|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I1 - Health > I18 - Government Policy ; Regulation ; Public Health
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O15 - Human Resources ; Human Development ; Income Distribution ; Migration
|Depositing User:||Ather H. Akbari|
|Date Deposited:||08. Jan 2011 02:00|
|Last Modified:||15. Mar 2015 20:11|
Akin, J., K. Guilkey David, and Denton E. Hazel. "Quality Of Services And Demand For Health Care In Nigeria: A Multinomial Probit Estimation." Social Science & Medicine, 1995: 1527-1537.
Akram, M. and F. Khan. “Health Care Services and Government Spending in Pakistan.” Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad (PIDE Working Paper 2007: 32).
Ali, M. and C. Kuroiwa. “Accurate record keeping in referral hospitals in Pakistan's north west frontier province and Punjab: a crucial step needed to improve maternal health.” Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 2007: 443-446.
Ali, M., M. Bhatti and C. Kuroiwa. “Challenges in Access to And Utilization of Reproductive Health Care in Pakistan.” Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad 2008: 20 (4): 3-7.
Aljunid S. The role of private medical practitioners and their interactions with public health services in Asian countries. Health Policy and Planning 1995;10:33349.
Asfaw, A., Joachim Von Braun and Stephan Klasen. "How Big is the Crowding-Out Effect of User Fees in the Rural Areas of Ethiopia: Implications for Equity and Resources Mobilization." World Development, 2004: 2065–2081.
Brugha, R. and A. Zwi. Improving the Quality of Private Sector Delivery of Public Health Services: Challenges and Strategies.” Health Policy and Planning,1998, Vol 13, 107-120.
Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook – Pakistan 2009. (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pk.html#People, Accessed August 28-2009)
Ching, Panfila. "User Fees, Demand For Children's Health Care And Access Across Income Groups: The Phiiappine Case." Social Sciences and Medicine, 1995: 37-46.
Dur-e-Nayab. “Demographic Dividend or Demographic Threat in Pakistan.” Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 47, No. 1, Part I, 2008: 1-26.
Falvo, D.R. Effective patient education: a guide to increased compliance Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2004.
Folland, S., A. Goodman and M. Stano. Economics of Health and Health Care Prentice Hall, 6th Edition, 2009.
Government of Pakistan. Situation Analysis of Health in Pakistan. Ministry of Health, Islamabad, 1995.
___________________. PSLM- 2004-05, 2007-08 - Pakistan Social and Living Standards Management Survey Federal Bureau of Statistics, Islamabad, 2009.
Lönnroth K, Tran T¬U, Thuong LM, Quy HT, Diwan V. Can I afford free treatment? Perceived consequences of health care provider choices among people with tuberculosis in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Soc Sci Med 2001;52:935¬48.
Mwabu, Germano, Martha Ainsworth, and Andrew Nyamete. "Quality of Medical Care and Choice of Medical Treatment in Kenya: An Empirical Analysis." The Journal of Human Resources, 1993: 838-862.
Swan. M. and A Zwi. Private practitioners and public health: close the gap or increase the distance. London: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 1997
Toor, I.A. Determinants of Health Expenditure and its Distributional Impact on Various Income Groups in Pakistan Applied Economics Research Centre, University of Karachi (Master of Philosophy Thesis, 2001).
Valery E. Biomedical Service Delivery for Women in Northern Pakistan: Ideological Contrasts and Social Resistance Faculty of Graduate Studies, The University of British Columbia (Master of Arts Thesis, 2002).
World Bank. Health Sector Study Islamic Republic of Pakistan: Key Concerns and Solutions. Washington, DC, 1993: 65-80.
Xu, Ke, D. Evans, P. Kadama, J. Nabyonga, P. Ogwal, P. Nabukhonzo and A. Aguilar. "Understanding The Impact Of Eliminating User Fees: Utilization And Catastrophic Health Expenditures In Uganda." Social Science & Medicine, 2006: 866–876.