Salois, Matthew and Balcombe, Kelvin (2011): Do Food Stamps Cause Obesity? A Generalised Bayesian Instrumental Variable Approach in the Presence of Heteroscedasticity.
Download (207kB) | Preview
The impact of covariates on obesity in the US is investigated, with particular attention given to the role of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. The potential endogeneity of participation in SNAP is considered as a potential problem in investigating its causal influence on obesity using instrumental variable (IV) approaches. Due to the presence of heteroscedasticity in the errors, the approach for dealing with heteroscedastic errors in Geweke (1993) is extended to the Bayesian instrumental variable estimator outlined in Rossi et al. (2005). This approach leads to substantively different findings to a standard classical IV approach to correcting for heteroscedasticity. Although findings support the contention that the SNAP participation rate is associated with a greater prevalence of obesity, the evidence for this impact is substantially weakened when using the methods introduced in the paper.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Do Food Stamps Cause Obesity? A Generalised Bayesian Instrumental Variable Approach in the Presence of Heteroscedasticity|
|Keywords:||Bayesian; Food Stamps; Food Insecurity; Instrumental Variabls; Heteroscedasticity; Obesity.|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I38 - Government Policy ; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I0 - General > I00 - General
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C3 - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models ; Multiple Variables > C31 - Cross-Sectional Models ; Spatial Models ; Treatment Effect Models ; Quantile Regressions ; Social Interaction Models
D - Microeconomics > D1 - Household Behavior and Family Economics > D10 - General
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C1 - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General > C11 - Bayesian Analysis: General
|Depositing User:||Matthew Salois|
|Date Deposited:||09 Feb 2011 19:40|
|Last Modified:||25 Nov 2016 18:04|
Adams EJ, Grummer-Strawn L, Chavez G. 2003. Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of obesity in Californian women. Journal of Nutrition 133: 1070-1074.
Baum C. 2007. The Effects of Food Stamps on Obesity. Economic Research Service, USDA Contractor and Cooperator Report Number 34: Washington, DC.
Besharov D. 2002. We Are Feeding the Poor as if They're Starving. Washington Post, December 8.
Besharov D. 2003. Growing Overweight and Obesity in America: The Potential Role of Federal Nutrition Programs. Testimony Prepared for the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate, April.
Bustillos B, Sharkey JR, Anding J, McIntosh A.2009. Availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores in two rural Texas counties. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 109(5): 883-9.
Brownson RC, Baker EA, Housemann RA, Brennan LK, Bacak, SJ 2001. Environmental and policy determinants of physical activity in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 91(12): 1995-2003.
Chen Z, Yen ST, Eastwood DB. 2005. Effects of food stamp participation on body weight and obesity. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 87: 1167-1173.
Chen S, Florax RJGM, Snyder S, Miller CC. 2010. Obesity and access to chain stores. Economic Geography 86(4): 431-452.
Devaney B, Fraker T. 1989. The effects of food stamps on food expenditures: as assessment of findings from the nationwide Food Consumption Survey. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 71: 99-104.
Devaney B, Moffitt R. 1991. Dietary effects of the Food Stamp Program. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73: 202-211.
Dietz WH. Does hunger cause obesity? Pediatrics 95: 766-767.
Dinour LM, Bergen D, Yeh MC. 2007. The food insecurity-obesity paradox: a review of the literature and the role food stamps may play. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107: 1952-1961.
Dowler E. 2003. Food and poverty. Development Policy Review 21: 569-580.
Drewnowski A. 2004. Obesity and the food environment - dietary energy density and diet costs. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 27: 154-162.
Ewing R, Schmid T, Killingsworth R, Zlot A, Raudenbush S. 2003. Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity. American Journal of Health Promotion 18: 47-57.
Feng J, Glass TA, Curriero FC, Stewart WF, Schwartz BS. 2010. The built environment and obesity: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Health and Place 16: 175-90.
Figlio DN, Gundersen C, Ziliak JP. 2000. The effects of the macroeconomy and welfare reform on food stamp caseloads. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 82: 635-641.
Fisher JO, Birch LL. 1999 Restricting access to palatable foods affects children's behavioral response, food selection, and intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69:1264--1272.
Fraker T, Devaney B, Cavin E. 1986. An evaluation of the effect of cashing out food stamps on food expenditures. American Economic Review 76: 230-234.
Fraker TM, Martini AP, Ohls JC. The effect of food stamp cashout on food expenditures: an assessment of the findings from four demonstrations. Journal of Human Resources 30: 633-649.
Frongillo EA, Olson CM, Rauschenbach BS, Kendall A. 1997. Nutritional consequences of food insecurity in a rural New York state county. Institute for Research on Poverty, Discussion Paper Number 1120-97: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
Geweke J. 1993. Bayesian Treatment of the Independent Student-t Linear Model. Journal of Applied Econometrics 8: S19-S40.
Gibson D. 2003. Food stamp program participation is positively related to obesity in low income women. Journal of Nutrition 133: 2225-2231.
Gundersen C, Oliveira V. 2001. The Food Stamp Program and food insufficiency. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 83(4): 875-887.
Hofferth SL, Curtin S. 2005. Poverty, food programs, and childhood obesity. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 24: 703-726.
Jeffery RW, Baxter J, McGuire M, Linde J. 2006. Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity? International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 3(2).
Jones SJ, Frongillo EA. 2007. Food insecurity and subsequent weight gain in women. Public Health Nutrition 10: 145-151.
Jones SJ, Frongillo EA. 2006. The modifying effects of food stamp program participation on the relation between food insecurity and weight change in women. Journal of Nutrition 136: 1091-1094.
Kaushal N. 2007. Do food stamps cause obesity? Evidence from immigrant experience. Journal of Health Economics 26: 968-991.
Kendall A, Olson CM, Frongillo EA. 1996. Relationship of hunger and food insecurity to food availability and consumption. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96: 1019-1024.
Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, Mickelsen O, Taylor HL. 1950. The Biology of Human Starvation, Vol. 1. Oxford University Press: Minneapolis, MN.
Kim K, Frongillo EA. 2007. Participation in food assistance programs modifies the relation of food insecurity with weight and depression in elder. Journal of Nutrition 137: 1005-1010.
Kimbro R, Rigby E. 2010. Federal food policy and childhood obesity: a solution or part of the problem? Health Affairs 29: 411-418.
Koop G. 2003. Bayesian Econometrics. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester England.
Maddock J. 2004. The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast-food restaurants: state-level analysis. American Journal of Health Promotion 19(2): 137-143.
Mehta NK, Chang VW. 2008. Weight status and restaurant availability a multilevel analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 34(2): 127-33.
Meyerhoefer CD, Pylypchuk Y. 2008. Does participation in the food stamp program increase the prevalence of obesity and health care spending? American Journal of Agricultural Economics 90: 287-305.
Mobley LR, Root ED, Finkelstein EA, Khavjou O, Farris RP, Will JC. 2006. Environment, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk in low-income women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(4): 327-332.
Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S. 2006. Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30(4): 333-9.
Morland KB, Evenson KR, 2009. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment. Health and Place 15(2): 491-5.
Mykerezi E, Mills B. 2010. The impact of Food Stamp Program participation on household food insecurity. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 92(5): 1379-1391.
Nord M, Andrews M, Carlson S. 2005. Household Food Security in the United States, 2004. Economic Research Service, USDA Report Number 66: Washington, DC.
Nord M, Andrews M, Carlson S. 2009. Household Food Security in the United States, 2008. Economic Research Service, USDA Report Number 66: Washington, DC.
Papas, MA, Alberg AJ, Ewing R, Helzlsouer KJ, Gary TL, Klassen AC. 2007. The built environment and obesity. Epidemiologic Reviews 29: 129-43.
Polivy J, Zeitlin SB, Herman CP, Beal AL. 1994. Food restriction and binge eating: a study of former prisoners of war. Abnormal Psychology 103: 409--411.
Poortinga W. 2006. Perceptions of the environment, physical activity, and obesity. Social Science and Medicine 63: 2835-46.
Robert SA. 1999. Socioeconomic position and health: the independent contribution of community socioeconomic context. Annual Review of Sociology 25: 489-516.
Rose D, Oliveira V. 1997. Nutrient intakes of individuals from food-insufficient households in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 87: 1956-1961.
Rossi PE, Allenby GM, McChulloch R. 2005. Bayesian Statistics and Marketing. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley and Sons: Chichester, England.
Sarlio-Lähteenkorva S, Lahelma E. 2001. Food insecurity is associated with past and present economic disadvantage and body mass index. Journal of Nutrition 131: 2880-2884.
Shapiro, J., 2005. Is there a daily discount rate? Evidence from the Food Stamp nutrition cycle. Journal of Public Economics 89: 303--325.
Townsend MS, Peerson J, Love B, Achterberg C, Murphy SP. 2001. Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women. Journal of Nutrition 131: 1738-1475.
Vozoris NT, Tarasuk VS. 2003. Household food insufficiency is associated with poorer health. Journal of Nutrition 133: 120-126.
Wang MC, Kim S, Gonzalez AA, MacLeod KE, Winkleby MA. 2007. Socioeconomic and food-related physical characteristics of the neighbourhood environment are associated with body mass index. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 61: 491-8.
Wilde PE, Ranney CK. 2000. The monthly food stamp cycle: shopping frequency and food intake decisions in an endogenous switching regression framework. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 82: 200-213.
Yen ST, Andrews M, Chen Z, Eastwood DB. 2008. Food Stamp Program participation and food insecurity: an instrumental variables approach. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 90(1): 117-132.
Ziliak JP, Gundersen C, Figlio DN. 2003. Food stamp caseloads over the business cycle. Southern Economic Journal 69: 903-919.