Naidu, Sirisha C. (2011): Gendered effects of work and participation in collective forest management.
Download (221kB) | Preview
This paper reports the results of a statistical investigation of the relationship between labor time expended in rural livelihoods, social structure, and community forest management. The object is to understand the impact of labor constraints to collective action. There are three main results. First, increasing time burden of work has a negative impact on collective forest management. Second, the gendered nature of work imposes a high burden on women and hence impedes their ability to participate in collective management even if incentives exist. In addition, lower access to social infrastructure further increases work burdens and decreases ability to participate. Finally, high levels of wealth lead to lower individual participation but this not because of high opportunity of time worked.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Gendered effects of work and participation in collective forest management|
|Keywords:||time use; collective action; gender; forests; South Asia; India|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q2 - Renewable Resources and Conservation > Q23 - Forestry
D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D71 - Social Choice ; Clubs ; Committees ; Associations
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor > J22 - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
B - History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches > B5 - Current Heterodox Approaches > B54 - Feminist Economics
|Depositing User:||Sirisha C Naidu|
|Date Deposited:||24. May 2011 17:06|
|Last Modified:||16. Feb 2013 02:08|
Adhikari, B., Di Falco, S., & Lovett, J. C. (2004). Household characteristics and forest dependency: Evidence from common property forest management in Nepal. Ecological Economics, 48(2), 245-257.
Adhikari, B. (2005). Poverty, property rights and collective action: Understanding the distributive aspects of common property resource management. Environment and Development Economics, 10(1), 7-31.
Agarwal, B. (1994a). A field of one's own: gender and land rights in South Asia. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Agarwal, B. (1997). Environmental action, gender equity and women's participation. Development and Change, 28(1), 1-44. Agarwal, B. (2000). Conceptualising environmental collective action: Why gender matters. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24(3), 283-310.
Agarwal, B. (2001). Participatory exclusions, community forestry, and gender: An analysis for South Asia and a conceptual framework. World Development, 29(10), 1623-1647. Agarwal, B. (2007). Gender inequality, cooperation and environmental sustainability. In J. M. Baland, P. Bardhan & S. Bowles (Eds.), Inequality And environmental sustainability ( pp. 274-313). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Agarwal, B. (2010). Gender and green governance: the political economy of women's presence within and beyond community forest. New York: Oxford University Press. Agrawal, A. (2001). Common property institutions and sustainable governance of resources. World Development, 29(1), 1649-1672.
Agrawal, A., & Chhatre, A. (2006). Explaining success on the commons: Community forest governance in the Indian Himalaya. World Development, 34(1), 149-166.
Alesina, A., & La Ferrara, E. (2000). Participation in heterogeneous communities. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 847-904.
Antonopoulos, R., & Memis, E. (2010). Time and poverty from a developing country perspective. Working Paper No. 600. Annandale-on-Hudson, NY: Levy Economics Institute.
Bakker, I. (2003). Neoliberal governance and the reprivatization of social reproduction. In I. Bakker, & S. Gill (Eds.), Power, production, and social reproduction: Human in/security in the global political economy ( pp. 66-82). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Baland, J. M., Bardhan, P., Das, S., Mookherjee, D., & Sarkar, R. (2007). Inequality, collective action and the environment: Evidence from firewood collection in nepal. In J. M. Baland, P. Bardhan & S. Bowles (Eds.), Inequality and environmental sustainability ( pp. 246-273). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Baland, J. M., & Platteau, J. P. (1996). Halting degradation of natural resources: Is there A role for rural communities? New York: Oxford University Press.
Baland, J. M., & Platteau, J. P. (1997). Coordination problems in local-level resource management. Journal of Development Economics, 53, 197-210.
Baland, J. M., & Platteau, J. P. (1999). The ambiguous impact of inequality on local resource management. World Development, 27(5), 773-788.
Baland, J. M., & Platteau, J. P. (2003). Economics of common property management regimes. In K. G. Mahler, & J. Vincent (Eds.), Handbook of environmental economics. Boston: Elsevier.
Baland, J. M., & Platteau, J. P. (2007). Collective action on the commons: The role of inequality. In J. Baland, P. Bardhan & S. Bowles (Eds.), Inequality and environmental sustainability ( pp. 10-35). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Balasubramainan, R., & Selvaraj, K. N. (2003). Poverty, private property and common pool resource management: The case of irrigation tanks in South India. SANDEE Working Paper No. 2-03). <http:// www.sandeeonline.org/>: SANDEE. Bardasi, E., & Wodon, Q. (2006). Measuring time poverty and analyzing its determinants: Concepts and application to guinea. In C. M. Blackden, & Q. Wodon (Eds.), Gender, time use and poverty in sub-saharan africa ( pp. 75-96). Washington D.C.: World Bank.
Bardhan, P., & Dayton-Johnson, J. (2007). Inequality and governance of water resources in mexico and south india. In J. M. Baland, P. Bardhan & S. Bowles (Eds.), Inequality and environmental sustainability ( pp. 97-130). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bardhan, P., Ghatak, M., & Karaivanov, A. (2007). Inequality and collective action. In J. M. Baland, P. Bardhan & S. Bowles (Eds.), Inequality and environmental sustainability ( pp. 36-59). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bardhan, P. (2005). Scarcity, conflicts, and cooperation: Essays in the political and institutional economics of development. London: MIT Press.
Beard, V. A. (2005). Individual determinants of participation in community development in Indonesia. Environment and Planning C, 23, 21-39.
Benería, L. (1992). The Mexican debt crisis: Restructuring the economy and the household. In L. Benería, & S. Feldman (Eds.), Unequal burden: Economic crises, persistent poverty, and women's work ( pp. 83-104). Boulder: Westview Press.
Boyce, J. K. (2003). From natural resources to natural assets. In J. K. Boyce, & B. G. Shelley (Eds.), Natural assets: Democratizing environmental ownership. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Cavendish, W. (1999). The complexity of the commons: Environmental resource demands in rural Zimbabwe. Working Paper Series WPS/99.8). Oxford University: Centre for the Study of African Economies.
Cavendish, W. (2000). Empirical regularities in the poverty-environment relationship of rural households: Evidence from Zimbabwe. World Development, 28(11), 1979-2003.
Chhatre, A. (2003). The mirage of permanent boundaries: Politics of forest reservation in the Western Himalayas, 1875-97. Conservation and Society, 1(1), 137-159.
Cooke, P. (1998). Intrahousehold labor allocation responses to environmental good scarcity: A case study from the hills of Nepal. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 46(4), 807-830.
Dayton-Johnson, J. (2000). Determinants of collective action on the local commons: A model with evidence from Mexico. Journal of Development Economics, 62, 181-208.
Dayton-Johnson, J., & Bardhan, P. (2002). Inequality and conservation of the local commons: A theoretical exercise. Economic Journal, 112(48), 577-602.
Esquivel, V., Budlender, D., Folbre, N., & Hirway, I. (2008). Explorations: Time-use surveys in the South. Feminist Economics, 14(3), 107-152.
Fisher, M. (2004). Household welfare and forest dependence in southern Malawi. Environment and Development Economics, 9(2), 135-154.
Floro, M. S., & Pichetpongsa, A. (2010). Gender, work intensity, and well-being of Thai home-based workers. Feminist Economics, 16(3), 5-44.
Floro, M. S. (1995a). Women's well-being, poverty, and work intensity. Feminist Economics, 1(3), 1-25.
Floro, M. S. (1995b). Economic restructuring, gender and the allocation of time. World Development, 23(11), 1913-1929.
Gadgil, M., & Guha, R. (1995). Ecology and equity: The use and abuse of nature in contemporary India. London: Routledge.
Government of Himachal Pradesh. (2002). Himachal Pradesh human development report. Shimla, India: Government of Himachal Pradesh.
Government of Himachal Pradesh. (2011). Economic survey of Himachal Pradesh 2009-2010. Shimla, India: Economics and Statistics Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh.
Government of India. (2001). Census of India, series 3: Himachal Pradesh. Shimla: Director of Census Operations, Himachal Pradesh.
Government of India. (2005). Himachal Pradesh development report. New Delhi: Planning Commission, Government of India.
Guha, R. (1990). The unquiet woods: Ecological change and peasant resistance in the Himalaya. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Heltberg, R. (2001). Determinants and impact of local institutions for common resource management. Environment and Development Economics, 6(2), 183-208.
Ilahi, N. (2000). The intra-household allocation of time and tasks: What have we learnt from the empirical literature. Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper Series No. 13. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
Ilahi, N., & Grimard, F. (2000). Public infrastructure and private costs: Water supply and time allocation of women in rural Pakistan. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 49(1), pp. 45-75.
Jodha, N. S. (2001). Common property resources in crisis. In N. S. Jodha (Ed.), Life on the edge: Sustaining agriculture and community resources in fragile environments. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Jodha, N. S. (1986). Common property resources and the rural poor in dry regions of India. Economic and Political Weekly, 21(27), 1169-1182.
Jodha, N. S. (1995). Common property resources and the environmental context: Role of biophysical versus social stresses. Economic and Political Weekly, 30(51), 3278-3283. Johnson, C. (2004). Uncommon ground: The 'poverty of history' in common property discourse. Development and Change, 35, 407-433.
Juster, F. T., & Stafford, F. P. (1991). The allocation of time: Empirical findings, behavioral models, and problems of measurement. Journal of Economic Literature, 29(2), pp. 471-522.
Kabeer, N. (2000). Gendered poverty and well-being; resources, agency, achievements: Reflections on the measurement of women's empowerment. In S. Razavi (Ed.), ( pp. 27--56). Malden, Ma: Blackwell Pub.
Kabeer, N. (2008). Mainstreaming gender in social protection for the informal economy. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
Kumar, S. K., & Hotchkiss, D. (1988). Consequences of deforestation for women's time allocation, agricultural production, and nutrition in hill areas of Nepal. Research Report, no. 69; Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Lawson, D. (2007). A gendered analysis of 'time poverty' - the importance of infrastructure. No. GPRG-WPS-078). Global Poverty Research Group.
Mayoux, L. (1993). Integration is not enough: Gender inequality and empowerment in Nicaraguan agricultural cooperatives. Development Policy Review, 11(1), 67-89.
Mayoux, L. (1995). Beyond naivety: Women, gender inequality and participatory development. Development and Change, 26(2), 235-258.
Mearns, R. (1999). Access to land in rural India: Policy and options. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 2123. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Mencher, J. (1993). Women, agriculture and the sexual division of labour: A three-state comparison. In S. Raju, & D. Bagchi (Eds.), Women and work in South Asia : Regional patterns and perspectives ( pp. 99-120). New York: Routledge.
Morrison, E. (2001). Participatory forestry in Himachal Pradesh India. Improving Policy-Livelihood Relationships in South Asia Policy Review Paper No. 2. Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute.
Moser, C. (1993). Adjustment from below: Low income women and time and the triple role in Guayaquil, Ecuador. In H. Afshar, & C. Dennis (Eds.), Women and adjustment policies in the Third World ( pp. 87-116). New York: St. Martin's Press.
Naidu, S. C. (2009). Heterogeneity and collective management: Evidence from common forests in Himachal Pradesh, India. World Development, 37(3), 676-686.
Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action . New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pichetpongsa, A. (2004). Work intensity and individual well-being: Evidence from Thailand. (Unpublished Ph.D.). American University, Washington D.C.
Pichetpongsa, A., & Floro, M. S. (2007). Gender and time dimensions of informal workers’ well-being: Evidence from Thailand. No. 2007-11. Washington D.C.: American University.
Premi, M. K. (2001). The missing girl child. Economic and Political Weekly, 36(21), 1875-1880.
PROBE Team. (1999). Public report on basic education in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Reddy, S. R. C., & Chakravarthy, S. P. (1999). Forest dependence and income distribution in subsistence economy: Evidence from India. World Development, 27(7), 1141-1149.
Ruwanpura, K. (2007). Shifting theories: Partial perspectives on the household. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 31(4), 525-538.
Sarin, M. (1995). Regenerating India's forests: Reconciling gender equity with joint forest management. IDS Bulletin, 26(1), 83-91.
Sarin, M., Singh, N. M., Sundar, N., & Bhogal, R. K. (2003). Devolution as a threat to democratic decision-making in forestry? : Findings from three states in India. In D. Edmunds, & E. Wollenberg (Eds.), Local forest management : The impacts of devolution policies ( pp. 55-126). London ; Sterling, VA: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
Sarin, M. (2001). Disempowerment in the name of participatory forestry? village forests joint management in Uttarakhand. Forests, Trees, and People Newsletter No. 44.
Sundar, N. (2000). Unpacking the `joint' in joint forest management. Development & Change, 31(1), 255-279.
Sundar, N., Jeffery, R., & Thin, N. (2001). Branching out: Joint forest management in India. New York: Oxford University Press.
United Nations. (1988). Improving statistics and indicators on women using household surveys. Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 48. New York: United Nations.
United Nations. (1990). Methods of measuring women's participation and production in the informal sector. Studies in methods. Series F, No. 46. New York: United Nations.
Vasan, S. (2003). Community forestry: Historical legacy of Himachal Pradesh. Himalayan Research Bulletin, 21(2), 36-45.
Vickery, C. (1977). The time-poor: A new look at poverty. The Journal of Human Resources, 12(1), 27-48. WRI. (2005). The wealth of the poor: Managing ecosystems to fight poverty. Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute.