Rana, Ejaz Ali Khan and Ali, Karamat (2002): Private schooling - a quality puzzle. Published in: The Lahore Journal of Economics , Vol. 7, No. 2 : pp. 41-68.
Download (134kB) | Preview
Primary school enrollment rates in Pakistan are lower than in other countries at the same level of economic development. The proportion of children reaching grade 5 is about half that in Sri Lanka and China and three-quarter that in India. Nationally, the gross primary school ratio is 74, and 101 for boys and 45 for girls. According to the National Education Policy 1992-2002, the target of literacy rate was set at 70 percent by the year 2002, which was achievable besides other measures, by inviting the private sector into education. Now, overall, private education accounts for about 10-12 percent of gross enrollments. The government of Pakistan has established a goal of universal primary enrollment by the year 2006. In the present study the quality characteristics of private schooling are discussed, i.e. qualitative aspects of schools, physical infrastructure of schools, teachers’ qualification and salaries, and fee, dropout rate, and repletion rate of the students, etc.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Private schooling - a quality puzzle|
|English Title:||Private Schooling - A Quality Puzzle|
|Keywords:||education, childern, private schools, Pakisatn|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I21 - Analysis of Education
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I38 - Government Policy ; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
H - Public Economics > H5 - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies > H53 - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
|Depositing User:||Rana Ejaz Ali Khan|
|Date Deposited:||17. Nov 2011 14:36|
|Last Modified:||27. Aug 2015 17:51|
Alderman, Harold., Jere Behrman., David Ross. and Richard Sabot, 1996 “Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy” Journal of Human Resources 32(1)
Alderman, Harold., Peter Orazem and Elizabeth M. Patero, 1996 “School Quality, School Cost, and the Public/Private School Choices of Low-Income Households in Pakistan” Working Paper Series on Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms, Paper No.2. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Bregman, Jacob and Nadeem Mohammad 1998 “Primary and Secondary Education-Structural Issues” in Pervez Hoodbhoy (ed) Education and the State. Fifty Years of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, Karachi.
Eisemon, Thomas Owen., John Schwille., Robert Prouty., Francis Ukobizoba., Deogratias Kana and Gilbert Manirabona 1993 “Providing Quality Education Resources are Scarce: Strategies for Increasing Primary School Effectiveness in Burundi” in H. Lebvin and M. Lockheed (ed) 1993 Effective Schools in Developing Countries, Falmer Press, London.
Gomes-Neta, Joao Batista and Eric A. Hanushek 1994 “Causes and Consequences of Grade Repetition, Evidence from Brazil” Economic Development and Cultural Change 43(1)
Haq, Mehboob-ul 1992 “GNP Numbers on People: New Global Challenges and Pakistan” Pakistan Banker July-December 1992 Hayes, Lois, 1987 Crisis of Education in Pakistan Vanguard, Lahore.
Homes, C. Thomas 1989 “Grade Level Retention Effects: A Meta-analysis of Research Studies” in Lorie A. Shepard and Mary Lee Smith (ed) 1989 Flunking Grades: Research and Policies on Retention. Falmer Press, London.
Kardar, Shahid 1998 “The Economics of Education” in Pervez Hoodbhoy (ed) Education and the State. Fifty Years of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, Karachi.
Kim, Jooseop, Harold Alderman and Peter Orazem, 1998a “Can Cultural Barriers Be Overcome in Girls’ Schooling?: The Community Support Program in Rural Balochistan” Working Paper Series on Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms, Paper No.10. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Kim, Jooseop, Harold Alderman and Peter Orazem, 1998b “Can Private Schools Subsidies Increase Schooling for the Poor?: The Quetta Urban Fellowship Program” Working Paper Series on Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms, Paper No.11. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Kingdon, Geeta 1996a “Private Schooling in India: Size, Nature and Equity Effects” Working Paper No.72. London School of Economics, London.
Kingdon, Geeta 1996b “The Quality and Efficiency of Private and Public Education: A Case Study of Urban India” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 58(1).
King, Elizabeth., Peter F. Orazem and Elizabeth M. Paterno 1999 “Promoting With and Without Learning: Effects on Student’s Dropout” Working Paper Series on Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms. Paper No.18. The World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Malik, Sohail Jehangir and Hina Nazli 1999 “Population, Employment, and the State of Human Resources” in Shahrukh Rafi Khan (ed) 1999 Fifty Years of Pakistan’s Economy. Traditional topics and Contemporary Concerns. Oxford University Press, Karachi.
Reynolds, Arthur 1992 “Grade Retention and School Adjustment: An Explanatory Analysis” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 14(2)
SPARC 1997 The State of Pakistan’s Children 1997 Society for the Protection of Rights of Child, Islamabad.
UNDP 1995 Human Development Report 1995 United Nations Development Program.Oxford University Press. Oxford. UNICEF 1999 State of the World’s Children 1999 UNICEF, New York.
Wright, Robert E. 1999 “The Rate of Return to Private Schooling” Discussion Paper No.92 University of String, Scotland, CERP, London and IZA, Bonn.