Liu, Hongtao and Polenske, Karen R. and Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins and Xi, Youmin (2011): Direct and indirect energy consumption in China and the United States.
Download (651kB) | Preview
Greenhouse gas reduction and energy consumption are becoming two important issues in both industrialized and developing countries, and policy makers are developing means to reduce total domestic energy use. We evaluate and compare the direct and the indirect energy consumption both in the People’s Republic of China (China) and the United States of America (US) by looking at a series of hybrid energy input-output tables (1997, 2002, and 2007). We also apply structural decomposition analysis (SDA), to identify the factors causing energy intensity (energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product) to differ between the two countries, which lead to potential energy-saving options. Our results show that, besides the differences in direct energy consumption, huge differences also exist in indirect energy consumption between the two countries. Differences in indirect energy consumption are mainly due to differences in technology. Technological change and industrial-structure change are key factors to explain the inequality of energy intensity, while there is a significant trend towards the convergence of sectorial energy efficiency between the two countries.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Direct and indirect energy consumption in China and the United States|
|English Title:||Direct and indirect energy consumption in China and the United States|
|Keywords:||Input-output analysis, Structural decomposition analysis, Energy|
|Subjects:||N - Economic History > N7 - Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q4 - Energy > Q43 - Energy and the Macroeconomy
|Depositing User:||Joaquim José Martins Guilhoto|
|Date Deposited:||17. Apr 2012 18:19|
|Last Modified:||25. Sep 2015 00:06|
BP, Statistical Review of World Energy (2010) http://www.bp.com/statisticalreview.
Dietzenbacher, E., Los, B., (1998). “Structural decomposition techniques: sense and sensitivity, Economic Systems Research.” 10(4), 307–323.
Druckman, A. and T. Jackson (2009). "The carbon footprint of UK households 1990-2004: A socio-economically disaggregated, quasi-multi-regional input-output model." Ecological Economics 68(7): 2066-2077.
Gay, P. W. and J. L. R. Proops (1993). "Carbon---dioxide production by the UK economy: An input-output assessment." Applied Energy 44(2): 113-130.
Han, X. L. and T. K. Lakshmanan (1994). "Structural-Changes and Energy-Consumption in the Japanese Economy 1975-85 - an Input-Output-Analysis." Energy Journal 15(3): 165-188.
Hoekstra, R., van den Bergh, J. C.J.M., (2002). “Structural decomposition analysis of physical flows in the economy.” Environmental and Resource Economics, 23(3): 357–378
Lenzen, M. (1998). "Primary energy and greenhouse gases embodied in Australian final consumption: an input-output analysis." Energy Policy, 26(6): 495-506.
Lenzen, M., L.-L. Pade, et al. (2004). "CO2 Multipliers in Multi-region Input-Output Models." Economic Systems Research 16(4): 391 - 412.
Leontief, W. (1986). Input-output economics, Oxford University Press.
Leontief, W., A. Morgan, et al. (1965). "The Economic-Impact - Industrial and Regional - of an Arms Cut." Review of Economics and Statistics 47(3): 217-241.
Levin T. et al. (2011). “State-scale evaluation of renewable electricity policy: The role of renewable electricity credits and carbon taxes.” Energy Policy, 39(2): 950-960
Liang, Q.-M., Y. Fan, et al. (2007). "Multi-regional input-output model for regional energy requirements and CO2 emissions in China." Energy Policy 35(3): 1685-1700.
Lin, X. and K. R. Polenske (1995). "Input-output anatomy of China's energy use changes in the 1980s." Economic Systems Research 7(1): 67.
Liu, H.-T., J.-E. Guo, et al. (2009). "Comprehensive evaluation of household indirect energy consumption and impacts of alternative energy policies in China by input-output analysis." Energy Policy 37(8): 3194-3204.
Liu, N. Ang, B.W., (2007). “Factors shaping aggregate energy intensity trend for industry: energy intensity versus product mix.” Energy Economics, 29(4):609–635.
Energy Information Administration. (1998). Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey Washington, DC:
Energy Information Administration. (2002). Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey Washington, DC:
Energy Information Administration. (2006). Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey Washington, DC:
Munksgaard, J., M. Wier, et al. (2005). "Using Input-Output Analysis to Measure the Environmental Pressure of Consumption at Different Spatial Levels." Journal of Industrial Ecology 9(1-2): 169-185.
National Bureau of Statistics of China, (1999) 1997 Input–Output Table of China. China Statistics Press, Beijing.
National Bureau of Statistics of China, (2006) 2002 Input–Output Table of China. China Statistics Press, Beijing.
National Bureau of Statistics of China, (2009) 2007 Input–Output Table of China. China Statistics Press, Beijing.
National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2010. China Statistical Yearbook 2010. China Statistics Press, http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2010/indexeh.htm
Nässén, J., J. Holmberg, et al. (2007). "Direct and indirect energy use and carbon emissions in the production phase of buildings: An input-output analysis." Energy 32(9): 1593-1602.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. (1998) Annual Energy Review. Washington, DC.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2003) Annual Energy Review. Washington, DC.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2008) Annual Energy Review. Washington, DC.
Wood, R., Lenzen, M., (2009). “Structural path decomposition.” Energy Economics, 31(3), 335-341.