Hasker, Kevin and Inci, Eren (2012): Free Parking for All in Shopping Malls.
Download (301kB) | Preview
We show why a shopping mall prefers to provide parking for free and embed the parking costs in the prices of the goods. This holds if the mall has monopoly power or prices competitively; if there is parking validation or a trade-off between shopping and parking spaces. It is also the second-best social optimum. Generally, the equilibrium lot size is too small, yielding a rationale for minimum parking requirements. In urban malls, parking fees may be positive because individuals can use the lot without intending to shop, and lots may become too large because of the trade-off between shopping and parking spaces.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Free Parking for All in Shopping Malls|
|Keywords:||land use; lot size; parking fee; parking requirements; shopping mall|
|Subjects:||H - Public Economics > H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue > H21 - Efficiency ; Optimal Taxation
L - Industrial Organization > L9 - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities > L91 - Transportation: General
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R5 - Regional Government Analysis > R52 - Land Use and Other Regulations
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R4 - Transportation Economics > R41 - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion ; Travel Time ; Safety and Accidents ; Transportation Noise
D - Microeconomics > D4 - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design > D42 - Monopoly
|Depositing User:||Eren Inci|
|Date Deposited:||16. Jan 2012 21:06|
|Last Modified:||23. Oct 2015 21:11|
Anderson, S., de Palma, A., 2004. The economics of pricing parking. Journal of Urban Economics 55, 1--20.
Anderson, S., de Palma, A., 2007. Parking in the city. Papers in Regional Science 86, 621--632.
Arbatskaya, M., Mukhopadhaya, K., Rasmusen, E., 2007. The parking lot problem. Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy Working Paper 2007--04.
Arnott. R., 2006. Spatial competition between downtown parking garages and downtown parking policy. Transport Policy 13, 458--469.
Arnott, R., de Palma, A., Lindsey, R., 1992. A temporal and spatial equilibrium analysis of commuter parking. Journal of Public Economics 45, 301--335.
Arnott, R., Inci, E., 2006. An integrated model of downtown oarking and traffic congestion. Journal of Urban Economics 60, 418--442.
Arnott, R., Inci, E., 2010. The stability of downtown parking and traffic congestion. Journal of Urban Economics 68, 260--276.
Arnott, R., Rave, T., Schob, R., 2005. Alleviating Urban Traffic Congestion. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Arnott, R., Rowse, J., 1999. Modeling parking. Journal of Urban Economics 45, 97--124.
Arnott, R., Rowse, J., 2009a. Curbside parking time limits. University of California, Riverside, Center for Sustainable Suburban Development Working Paper 09--05.
Arnott, R., Rowse, J., 2009b. Downtown parking in auto city. Regional Science and Urban Economics 39, 1--14.
Calthrop, E., 2001. Essays in Urban Transport Economics. PhD diss. Catholic University of Leuven.
Calthrop, E., Proost, S., 2006. Regulating on street parking. Regional Science and Urban Economics 36, 29--48.
Drewianka, S., 2008. Constrained labor supply and risk-aversion. Economics Letters 101, 130--133.
Glazer, A., Niskanen, E., 1992. Parking fees and congestion. Regional Science and Urban Economics 22, 123--132.
International Council of Shopping Centers, Urban Land Institute, 2003. Parking Requirements for Shopping Centers: Summary Recommendations and Research Study Report. Urban Land Institute, Washington.
Jakle, J., Sculle, K., 2004. Lots of Parking: Land Use in a Car Culture. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.
Rochet, J.-C., Tirole, J., 2003. Platform competition in two-sided markets. Journal of the European Economic Association 1, 990--1029.
Shoup, D., 1999. The trouble with minimum parking requirements. Transportation Research Part A 33, 533--574.
Shoup, D., 2005. The High Cost of Free Parking. American Planning Association, Chicago.
Shoup, D., 2006. Cruising for parking. Transport Policy 13, 479--486.
Small, K., Verhoef, E., 2007. The Economics of Urban Transportation. Routledge, Abingdon, UK.
US Department of Transportation, 1990. 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Washington, D.C.
van Ommeren, J., Wentink, D., forthcoming. The (hidden) cost of employer parking policies. International Economic Review.
van Ommeren, J., Wentink, D., Dekkers, J., 2011. The real price of parking policy. Journal of Urban Economics 70, 25--31.
van Ommeren, J., Wentink, D., Rietweld, P., forthcoming. Empirical evidence on cruising for parking. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.
Vickrey, W., 1954. The economizing of curb parking space. Traffic Engineering, 62--67 (Reprinted in Journal of Urban Economics 36 (1994), 42--65).
Vickrey, W., 1969. Congestion theory and transport investment. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 59, 251--260.
Willson, R., 1996. Local jurisdiction parking requirements: a survey of policies and attitudes. California State Polytechnic University, Department of Urban and Regional Planning Working Paper.