Johnson, Noel D and Koyama, Mark (2012): Legal Centralization and the Birth of the Secular State.
Download (556kB) | Preview
This paper investigates the relationship between the historical process of legal centralization and increased religious toleration by the state. We develop a model in which legal centralization leads to the criminalization of the religious beliefs of a large proportion of the population. This process initially leads to increased persecution, but, because these persecutions are costly, it eventually causes the state to broaden the standards of orthodox belief and move toward religious toleration. We compare the results of the model with historical evidence drawn from two important cases in which religious diversity and state centralization collided in France: the Albigensian crusades of the thirteenth century and the rise of Protestant belief in the sixteenth century. Both instances sup- port our central claim that the secularization of western European state institutions during the early-modern period was driven by the costs of imposing a common set of legal standards on religiously diverse populations.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Legal Centralization and the Birth of the Secular State|
|Keywords:||State Capacity; Religion; Secularization; Heresy; Legal Capacity; France|
|Subjects:||H - Public Economics > H1 - Structure and Scope of Government > H10 - General
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z12 - Religion
P - Economic Systems > P4 - Other Economic Systems > P48 - Political Economy ; Legal Institutions ; Property Rights ; Natural Resources ; Energy ; Environment ; Regional Studies
K - Law and Economics > K4 - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior > K42 - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
N - Economic History > N4 - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation > N43 - Europe: Pre-1913
|Depositing User:||Mark Koyama|
|Date Deposited:||29 Aug 2012 04:19|
|Last Modified:||12 Mar 2017 16:29|
Arnold, John H. (2001), Inquisition and Power: Catharism and the Confessing Subject in Medieval Languedoc, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Asad, Talal (1986), ‘Medieval heresy: An anthropological view’, Social History 11(3), pp. 345–362.
Balla, Eliana and Noel D. Johnson (2009), ‘Fiscal crisis and institutional change in the Ottoman Empire and France’, The Journal of Economic History 69(03), 809–845.
Barber, Malcome (2000), The Cathars, Longman, Harlow.
Barro, Robert J. and Rachel M. McCleary (2005), ‘Which countries have state religions?’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 120(4), pp. 1331–1370.
Becker, Sascha O. and Ludger Woessmann (2009), ‘Was Weber wrong? a human capital theory of Protestant economic history’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(2), 531–596.
Benedict, Philip (1996), Un roi, une loi, deux dois: parameters for the history of Catholic-Reformed co-existence in France, 1555-1685, in O. P.Grell and B.Scribner, eds, ‘Tolerance and intolerance in the European Reformation’, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 65–93.
Bisson, Thomas (2009), The crisis of the twelfth century: power, lordship, and the origins of European government, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
Blackford, Russell (2012), Freedom of Religion & the Secular State, Wiley-Blackwell,
Chichester. Bosworth, C.E. (1982), The concept of Dhimma in early Islam, in B.Bruade and B.Lewis, eds, ‘Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire’, Vol. I, Holmes & Meier, New York, pp. 37–55.
Bruade, Benjamin (1982), Foundation myths of the Millet system, in B.Bruade and B.Lewis, eds, ‘Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire’, Vol. I, Holmes & Meier, New York, pp. 69–89.
Bruade, Benjamin and Bernard Lewis (1982), Introduction, in B.Bruade and B.Lewis, eds, ‘Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire’, Vol. I, Holmes & Meier, New York, pp. 1–37.
Bruce, Steven (2002), God is Dead: secularization in the west, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
Cantoni, Davide (2012), ‘Adopting a new religion: The case of Protestantism in 16th century Germany ’, Economic Journal, 122(560), 502–5311.
Chadwick, Owen (1975), The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Clingingsmith, David, Asim Ijaz Khwaja and Michael Kremer (2009), ‘Estimating the impact of the Hajj: Religion and tolerance in Islam’s global gathering’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 124(3), 1133– 1170.
Coffey, John (2000), Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England, 1558-1689, Longman, London.
Cohen, Mark (1994), Under Cresent and Cross, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Cohen, Norman (1957), The Pursuit of the Millenium, revolutionary millenarians and mystical anarchists of the middle ages, Pimilco, London.
Cosgel, Metin M. and Thomas J. Miceli (2009), ‘State and religion’, Journal of Comparative Economics 37(3), 402–416.
Cosgel, Metin M., Thomas J. Miceli and Jared Rubin (2012), ‘The political economy of mass printing: Legitimacy and technological change in the Ottoman empire’, Journal of Comparative Economics Forthcoming.
Cottret, Bernard (2003), Religious or secular? the Edict of Nantes, reformation and state formation in late sixteenth century France, in R.Whelan and C.Baxter, eds, ‘The Edict of Nantes and its Implications in France, Britain, and Ireland’, Four Courts Press, Dublin, pp. 107–127.
Davies, Norman (1981), God’s Playground: A History of Poland, Vol. 1, Clareden Press, Oxford.
Ekelund, Robert B., Robert F. Hebert and Robert D. Tollison (2002), ‘An economic analysis of the Protestant Reformation’, Journal of Political Economy 110(3), 646–671.
Ekelund, Robert B., Robert Hebert and Robert Tollison (2006), The Marketplace of Christianity, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Elton, G.R. (1953), The Tudor Revolution in Goverment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Everitt, Brian and D.J. Hand (1981), Finite Mixture Distributions, Chapman and Hall.
Ferrero, Mario (2012), ‘The rise and demise of theocracy: Theory and some evidence’, Public Choice Forthcoming.
Finke, Roger (1991), ‘Religious deregulation: Origins and consequences’, Journal of Church and State 32(3), 609–26.
Forrest, Ian (2005), The Detection of Hersey in Late Medieval England, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Gill, Anthony (2008), The Political Origins of Religious Liberty, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Given, James B. (1989), ‘The inquistors of Languedoc and the medieval technology of power’, The American Historical Review 94(2), 336–359.
Given, James B. (1990), State and Society in Medieval Europe, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.
Given, James B. (1997), Inquisition and Medieval Society, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.
Goldsmith, James Lowth (2003), Lordship in France, 500-1500, Peter Lang, New York.
Graham-Leigh, Elaine (2005), The Southern French Nobility and the Albigensian Crusade, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge.
Greengrass, Mark (1987), The French Reformation, Basil Blackwell, Oxford. Grell, Ole Peter and Roy Porter (2000), Toleration in enlightenment Europe, in O. P.Grell and R.Porter, eds, ‘Toleration in Enlightenment Europe’, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–23.
Hamilton, Bernard (1982), The Medieval Inquisition, Holmes & Meier, London.
Hamilton, Bernard (1999), The Albigensian crusade and heresy, in D.Abulafia, ed., ‘New Cambridge Medieval History’, Vol. 5, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 164–182.
Head, Randolph C. (1998), The transformation of the long sixteenth century, in J. C.Laursen and C. J.Nederman, eds, ‘Beyond the Persecuting Society: Religious Toleration Before the Enlightenment’, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 95–106.
Hirschman, Albert O. (1977), The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments For Capitalism Before Its Triumph., Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Hoffman, Philip (1994), Early modern France, 1450–1700, in P.Hoffman and K. N.(ed.), eds, ‘Fiscal Crises, Liberty, and Representative Government, 1450–1789’, Standford University Press, Standford, California, pp. 226–252.
Holt, Mack P. (2005), The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Iannaccone, Laurence R, Roger Finke and Rodney Stark (1997), ‘Deregulating religion: The economics of church and state’, Economic Inquiry 35(2), 350–64.
Iyigun, Murat (2008), ‘Luther and Suleyman’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123(4), 1465–1494.
Jha, Saumitra (2010), Trade, complementaries and religious tolerance: evidence from India. unpublished manuscript.
Johnson, Noel D and Mark Koyama (2011), Taxes, lawyers, and the decline of witch trials in France, MPRA Paper 34266, University Library of Munich, Germany.
Johnson, Noel D. and Mark Koyama (2012), Standardizing the fiscal state: cabal tax farming as an intermediate institution in early-modern England and France, MPRA Paper 40403, University Library of Munich, Germany.
Jordan, W.K. (1932), The Development of Religious Toleration in England, Vol. I, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kamen, Henry (1967), The Rise of Toleration, World University Library, New York.
Kelley, Donald R. (1972), ‘Martyrs, Myths, and the massacre: The background of St. Bartholomew’, The American Historical Review 77(5), pp. 1323–1342.
Kelley, Donald R. (1981), The Beginning of Ideology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kelly, Henry Ansgar (1989), ‘Inquisition and the persecution of heresy: Misconceptions and abuses’, Church History 58(4), 439–451.
Kieckhefer, Richard (1979), Repression of Heresy in Medieval Germany, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Kieckhefer, Richard (1995), ‘The office of inquisition and medieval heresy: The transition from personal to institutional jurisdiction’, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 46(1), 36–61.
Knecht, R.J. (1982), Francis I, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Koyama, Mark (2010), ‘The political economy of expulsion: the regulation of Jewish moneylending in medieval England’, Constitutional Political Economy 21(4), 374–406.
Kuntz, Marion Leathers (1998), The concept of toleration in the colloquium heptaplomeres of Jean Bodin, in J. C.Laursen and C. J.Nederman, eds, ‘Beyond the Persecuting Society: Religious Toleration Before the Enlightenment’, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, pp. 125–144.
Kuran, Timur (2004), ‘The economic ascent of the Middle East’s religious minorities: The role of Islamic legal pluralism’, Journal of Legal Studies 33, 475–515.
Kuran, Timur (2010), The Long Divergence, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Ladurie, Emmanuel Le Roy (1978), Montaillou, Scolar Press, London. Translated by Barbara Bray.
Lambert, Malcome (1998), The Cathars, Basil Blackwell, Oxford. Langbein,
John H. (1974), Prosecuting Crime in the Renaissance, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Langmuir, Gavin I. (1990), Toward a Definition of Antisemitism, University of California Press, Berkeley.
Laursen, John Christian, ed. (1999), Religious Toleration: “The Variety of Rites” from Cyrus to Defoe, Macmillan, London.
Lecler, Joseph (1960), Toleration and The Reformation, Association Press, New York.
Leff, Gordon (1961), ‘Heresy and the decline of the medieval church’, Past & Present 20, 36–51.
Leff, Gordon (1967), Heresy in the Later Middle Ages: The Relation of Heterodoxy to Dissent c.1250-c.1450, Manchester University Press, Manchester.
Lerner, Robert E. (1972), The Free Spirit in the Later Middle Ages, University of California Press, Los Angeles.
Lewis, Bernard (1986), Semites and Anti-Semites, George Weidenfeld and Nicholson Ltd, London.
Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1967, 1848), History of England, Vol. I, Heron Books, London.
MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2003), Reformation, Europe’s House Divided 1490–1700, Allen Lane, London.
Masrooi, Cyrus (1999), Cyrus II and the political utility of religious toleration, in J. C.Laursen, ed., ‘Religious Toleration: “The Variety of Rites” from Cyrus to Defore’, Macmillan, London, pp. 13–36.
McGrath, Patrick (1967), Papists and Puritans Under Elizabeth I, Blandord Press, London.
Menache, Sophia (1985), ‘Faith, myth, and politics: The sterotype of the Jews and their expulsion from England and France’, The Jewish Quarterly Review 75, 351–374.
Menache, Sophia (1997), ‘Mathew Paris’s attitudes toward Anglo–Jewry’, Journal of Medieval History 23, 139–162.
Mentzer, Raymond A., Jr. (1973), ‘The legal response to heresy in Languedoc, 1500-1560’, The Sixteenth Century Journal 4(1), pp. 19–30.
Mentzer, Raymond A., Jr. (1984), ‘Heresy proceedings in Languedoc, 1500-1560’, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 74(5), pp. 1–183.
Monter, William (1999), Judging the French Reformation, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.
Moore, R.I. (2012), The War on Heresy, Profile Books Ltd., London.
Moore, Robert L. (1987), The Formation of a Persecuting Society: power and deviance in Western Europe, 950–1250, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, U.K.
Murphy, Andrew R. (2001), Conscience and Community, The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Nirenberg, David (1996), Communities of Violence, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Norris, Pippa and Ronald Inglehart (2004), Sacred and Secular: religion and politics worldwide, second edition, 2011 edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Nussbaum, Martha C. (2008), Liberty of Conscience: In Defence of America’s Tradition of Religious Equality, Basic Books, New York.
Ocibal, J. (1976), Louis XIV and the Edict of Nantes, in R.Hatton, ed., ‘Louis XIV and Absolutism’, The MacMillan Press Ltd., London, pp. 154–176.
Oldenbourg, Zoe (1961), Massacre at Monts ́egur, Phoenix Press, London.
Pamuk, Sevket (2004), ‘The evolution of financial institutions in the ottoman empire, 1600- 1914’, Financial History Review 11(1), 7–32.
Parker, Charles H. (1993), ‘French Calvinists as the children of Israel: An Old Testament self-consciousness in Jean Crespin’s Histoire des Martyrs before the wars of religion’, The Sixteenth Century Journal 24(2), pp. 227–248.
Pegg, Mark Gregory (2001), The Corruption of Angels, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Pegg, Mark Gregory (2008), A Most Holy War, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Poliakov, Leon (1955), The History of Anti-Semitism, Vol. 1, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. translated by Richard Howard.
Rawls, John (1993), Political Liberalism, Columbia University Press, New York.
Ray, Surajit and Bruce G. Lindsay (2005), ‘The topography of multivariate normal mixtures’, The Annals of Statistics 33(5), 2042 – 2065.
Roelker, Nancy Lyman (1996), One King, One Faith, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Rohac, Dalibor (2008), ‘The unanimity rule and religious fractionalisation in the Polish-Lithuanian Republic’, Constitutional Political Economy 19(2), 111–128.
Rubin, Jared (2011), ‘Institutions, the rise of commerce and the persistence of laws: Interest restrictions in Islam and Christianity’, Economic Journal 121(557), 1310–1339.
Rubin, Jared (Forthcoming), ‘Printing and Protestants: Reforming the Economics of the Reformation’, Review of Economics and Statistics .
Runciman, Steven (1970), The Orthodox Churches and the Secular State, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Salmon, J.H.M. (1975), Society in Crisis: France in the Sixteenth Century, Ernest Benn Limited, London.
Smith, Adam (1759), The Theory of Moral Sentiments, UP, Cambridge.
Solt, Leo F. (1990), Church and State in Early Modern England, 1509-1640, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Stow, Kenneth R. (1992), Alienated Minority, the Jews of Medieval Latin Europe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Strayer, Joseph (1940, 1971c), The Laicization of French and English society in the thirteenth century, in J. F.Benton and T. N.Bisson, eds, ‘Medieval Statecraft and the Perspectives of History’, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp. 251–265.
Strayer, Joseph (1963, 1971b), The historical experience of nation-building in Europe, in J. F.Benton and T. N.Bisson, eds, ‘Medieval Statecraft and the Perspectives of History’, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp. 341–348.
Strayer, Joseph (1969, 1971a), France: the holy land, the choosen people and the most Christian king, in J. F.Benton and T. N.Bisson, eds, ‘Medieval Statecraft and the Perspectives of History’, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, pp. 300–314.
Strayer, Joseph (1970), On the Medieval Origins of the Modern State, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
Sutherland, N.M. (1980), The Huguenot Struggle for Recognition, Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
Sutherland, N.M. (1984), Persecution and toleration in reformation Europe, in W.Sheils, ed., ‘Persecution and Toleration’, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 153–162.
Tazbir, Janusz (1973), A State without States, The Ko ́sciuzko Foundaton Twayne Publishers, Panstowowy Instytut Wydawiczy.
Teter, Magda (2006), Jews and Heretics in Catholic Poland, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Titterington, D.M., A.F.M.
Smith and U.E. Makov (1985), Statistical Analysis of Finite Mixture Distribu- tions, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
Tsay, Ruey S. (2005), Analysis of Financial Time Series, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, N.J.
Ullman, Walter (1961), Principles of Government and Politics in the Middle Ages, Methuen and Co. Limited, London.
Wakefield, Walker L. (1974), Heresy, Crusade and Inquisition in Southern France 1100–1250, University of California Press, Berkeley.
Walsham, Alexandra (1993), Church Papists: Catholicism, Conformity and Confessional Polemic in Early Modern England, The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, Suffolk.
Williamson, Oliver (2005), ‘The economics of governance’, The American Economic Review 95(2), 1 – 18.
Wolfe, Martin (1972), The Fiscal System of Renaissance France, Yale University Press, New Haven.
Zagorin, Perez (2003), How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.