Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Testing Price Pressure, Information, Feedback Trading, and Smoothing Effects for Energy Exchange Traded Funds

Chang, Chia-Lin and Ke, Yu-Pei (2014): Testing Price Pressure, Information, Feedback Trading, and Smoothing Effects for Energy Exchange Traded Funds.

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Abstract

This paper examines the relationships between flows and returns for five Exchange Traded Funds (ETF) in the U.S. energy sector. Four alternative hypotheses are tested, including the price pressure hypothesis, information (or price release) hypothesis, feedback trading hypothesis, and smoothing hypothesis. The five ETF are the Energy Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLE), iShares U.S. Energy ETF (IYE), iShares Global Energy ETF (IXC), Vanguard Energy ETF (VDE), and PowerShares Dynamic Energy Exploration & Production Portfolio (PXE). A Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model is used to analyze the relationships between energy flows and returns. The empirical results show that energy returns and subsequent energy ETF flows have a negative relationship, thereby supporting the smoothing hypothesis. Moreover, the smoothing effect exists for XLE and IYE during the global financial crisis. Regardless of whether the whole sample period or the sub-samples before, during and after the global financial crisis are used, no evidence is found in support of the price pressure hypothesis, information hypothesis, or feedback trading hypothesis.

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