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Determinants of bank profits and its persistence in Indian Banks: A study in a dynamic panel data framework

Sinha, Pankaj and Sharma, Sakshi (2014): Determinants of bank profits and its persistence in Indian Banks: A study in a dynamic panel data framework.

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Abstract

The paper studies the impact of bank specific, industry specific and macroeconomic factors affecting profitability of Indian Banks in a dynamic model framework. The persistence of bank profits and endogeneity of the factors have been accounted for using Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) as suggested in Arellano & Bond, 1991.The panel data for the study have been obtained from 42 Indian Scheduled Commercial Banks for the period from 2000 to 2013 .The lag of bank profits variable ROA has been found to be significantly indicating moderate degree of persistence of profits in Indian Banking Industry. This shows that the product markets of Indian Banks are moderately competitive, and less opaque due to asymmetry in information. The Indian banking sector is not far away from becoming a perfectly competitive industry. Bank specific variables; capital to assets ratio, operating efficiency and diversification have been found to be significantly and positively affecting the bank profits. Credit risk, measured by provisions for bad debts, negatively impacts the bank profitability. The study also tests the Structure conduct Hypothesis (SCP) by using Herfindahl – Hirschman Index (HHI) and finds evidence in its support. Bank profits responds positively to the GDP growth, indicating that bank profits are pro-cyclical to the growth of economy whereas the increase in inflation rate affects bank profits negatively .It is observed that the crisis period did not make any significant effect on profitability of banks .The study concludes that there is a moderate degree of persistence of bank profits and most of the determinants of profits have a positive and a significant impact on profitability of banks which implies that Indian Banks in the last decade have been moving towards efficiency and dynamism.

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