Michalopoulos, Stelios (2008): The Origins of Ethnolinguistic Diversity: Theory and Evidence.
Download (963kB) | Preview
This research examines theoretically and empirically the economic origins of ethnolinguistic diversity. The empirical analysis constructs detailed data on the distribution of land quality and elevation across contiguous regions, virtual and real countries, and shows that variation in elevation and land quality has contributed �significantly to the emergence and persistence of ethnic fractionalization. The empirical and historical evidence support the theoretical analysis, according to which heterogeneous land endowments generated region specific� human capital, limiting population mobility and leading to the formation of localized ethnicities and languages. The research contributes to the understanding of the emergence of ethnicities and their spatial distribution and offers a distinction between the natural, geographically driven, versus the artificial, man-made, components of contemporary ethnic diversity.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Origins of Ethnolinguistic Diversity: Theory and Evidence|
|Keywords:||Ethnic Diversity, Geography, Technological Progress, Human Capital, Colonization|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development
O - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth > O4 - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity > O43 - Institutions and Growth
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics; Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology > Z13 - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Social and Economic Stratification
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor > J24 - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
|Depositing User:||Stelios Michalopoulos|
|Date Deposited:||12. Nov 2008 09:57|
|Last Modified:||11. Feb 2013 21:40|
Ahlerup, Pelle and Ola Olsson, “The Roots of Ethnic Diversity,” 2007. Working Papers, University of Gothenburg.
Alesina, Alberto and Enrico Spolaore, “On the Number and Size of Nations,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1997, 112, 1027—1056.
Alesina, Alberto, Arnaud Devleeschauwer, William Easterly, Sergio Kurlat, and Romain Wacziarg, “Fractionalization,” Journal of Economic Growth, 2003, 8, 155—194.
Ashraf, Quamrul and Stelios Michalopoulos, “The Climatic Origins of the Neolithic Revolution: A Theory of Long-Run Development via Climate-Induced Technological Progress,” 2007. Working Paper, mimeo Brown University.
Atlas Narodov Mira (Atlas of the People of the World), Moscow: Glavnoe Upravlenie Geodezii i Kartograi, Bruck, S.I., and V.S. Apenchenko, 1964.
Banerjee, Abhijit and Rohini Somanathan, “The Political Economy of Public Goods: Some Evidence from India,” Journal of Development Economics, 2006, 82, 287—314.
Barth, Frederik, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Cultural Difference, Boston: Little, Brown, 1969.
Bellwood, Peter, “Early Agriculturalist Population Diasporas? Farming, Languages, and Genes,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 2001, 30, 181—207.
Bockstette, Valerie, Areendam Chanda, and Louis Putterman, “States and Markets: The Advantage of an Early Start,” Journal of Economic Growth, 2002, 7 (4), 347—369.
Boserup, Ester, The Conditions of Agricultural Growth, Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965.
Botticini, Maristella and Zvi Eckstein, “From Farmers to Merchants, Voluntary Conversions and Diaspora: A Human Capital Interpretation of Jewish History,” Journal of Economic History, 2005, 65, 922—948.
Boyd, Robert and Peter J. Richerson, Culture and the Evolutionary Process, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
Caselli, Francesco and Wilbur J. Coleman, “On the Theory of Ethnic Conflict,” 2006. Working Paper, mimeo London School of Economics.
Conley, Timothy G., “GMM Estimation with Cross Sectional Dependence,” Journal of Econometrics, 1999, 92, 1—45.
Curtin, Philip D., Cross-Cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Darwin, Charles, The Voyage of the Beagle, Reprinted by Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers, Originally 1839, Reprinted in 2006.
Easterly, William and Ross Levine, “Africa’s Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1997, 112 (4), 1203—1250.
Esteban, Joan and Debraj Ray, “On the Salience of Ethnic Conflict,” 2007. Working Paper, mimeo New York University.
Fearon, James, “Ethnic Structure and Cultural Diversity by Country,” Journal of Economic Growth, 2003, 8, 195—222.
Fearon, James and David Laitin, “Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War,” American Political Science Review, 2003, 97, 75—90.
Galor, Oded and David N. Weil, “Population, Technology, and Growth: From Malthusian Stagnation to the Demographic Transition and Beyond,” American Economic Review, 2000, 90 (4), 806—828.
Geertz, Clifford, Old Societies and New States: The Quest for Modernity in Asia and Africa, New York: Free Press, 1967.
Gray, Russell D. and Quentin D. Atkinson, “Language-Tree Divergence Times Support the Anatolian Theory of Indo-European Origin,” Nature, 2003, 426, 435—439.
Grigg, David B., An Introduction to Agricultural Geography, Routledge, London and New York, 1995.
Hale, Henry E., “Explaining Ethnicity,” Comparative Political Studies, 2004, 37 (4), 458—485.
Herbst, Jeffrey, State and Power in Africa, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Leff, B, N Ramankutty, and J.A. Foley, “Geographic Distribution of Major Crops Across the World,” Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2004, 18 (1).
Michalopoulos, Stelios, “Natural versus Man-Made Ethnolinguistic Diversity: Implications for Comparative Economic Development,” 2008. Mimeo, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
Miguel, Edward and Daniel Posner, “Sources of Ethnic Identification in Africa,” 2006. Working Paper, mimeo University of California, Berkeley.
Montalvo, José G. and Marta Reynal-Querol, “Ethnic Polarization, Potential Conflict and Civil War,” American Economic Review, 2005, 95, 796—816.
Nettle, Daniel, “Linguistic Diversity,” Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Nichols, Johanna, “Chechen Phonology,” in P Daniels AS Kaye, ed., Phonologies of Asia and Africa, Bloomington: Eisenbrauns, 1997.
Nichols, Johanna, “Modeling Ancient Population Structures and Movement in Linguistics,” Annual Review of Anthropology, 1997a, 26 (6), 359—384.
Olson, Paul A., Struggle for the Land: Indigenous Insight and Industrial Empire in the Semiarid World, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.
Pavitt, Nigel, Samburu, Kyle Kathie Limited, 2001.
Ramankutty, Navin, Jonathan A. Foley, John Norman, and Kevin McSweeney, “The Global Distribution of Cultivable Lands: Current Patterns and Sensitivity to Possible Climate Change,” Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2002, 11, 377—392.
Rao, Vijayendra and Radu Ban, “The Political Construction of Caste in South India,” 2007. mimeo, The World Bank.
Renfrew, Colin, “At the Edge of Knowability: Towards a Prehistory of Languages,” Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 2000, 10, 7—34.
Rosenzweig, Michael L., Species Diversity in Space and Time, New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Spolaore, Enrico and RomainWacziarg, “TheDiffusion of Development,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, 2009, 124 (2).
Willliamson, Jeffrey G., “Poverty Traps Distance and Diversity: The Migration Connection,” 2006. NBER Working Paper No. 12549.