Amit, Kundu (2009): Switching over to Organic Cultivation and Its Impact on Living Wage and Employment in the Agricultural Labour Market. Published in: Modern Indian Economy: Essays in Honour of A .Ghosh; Deep and Deep Publication, New Delhi, India , Vol. Modern, No. Modern Indian Economy: Essays in Honour of A .Ghosh; Deep and Deep Publication, New Delhi, India (18. September 2010): pp. 398-413.
Download (274Kb) | Preview
The export performance of Indian agricultural commodities in the post WTO agreement on agriculture is not encouraging. Substantial increase of cost of farming due to steep increase of prices of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and seeds gradually make farming as non-profitable. This also reduces employment generation in agricultural sector. High improper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the time of cultivation also creates different health hazards among the agricultural labourers. In this situation, this paper suggests that switching over to organic cultivation will be beneficial for both the farmer and agricultural labourers. As India is now enjoying few comparative advantages in exporting organic agricultural commodities, cultivation through organic method with bio-pesticides can help the Indian farmers to penetrate in vast global market mainly in developed countries and can sell the product at premium price. The organic cultivation will also give sufficient health security to the employed agricultural labourers, which is an important part of social security of these unorganized workers. Switching over to organic cultivation, will help the farmers cum employers to offer lower living wage to each employed labourers without violating social security norm of these unorganized workers and can generate sufficient employment in the agricultural labour market which ultimately will increase further if the developed countries following WTO agreement reduces tariff rates at the time of importing organic food products
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Switching over to Organic Cultivation and Its Impact on Living Wage and Employment in the Agricultural Labour Market|
|English Title:||Switching over to Organic Cultivation and its Impact on Living Wage and Employment in the Agricultural Labour Market|
|Keywords:||WTO Agreement, Organic Cultivation, Health Security, Living Wage, Employment|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J4 - Particular Labor Markets > J43 - Agricultural Labor Markets
F - International Economics > F1 - Trade > F13 - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
N - Economic History > N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries > N55 - Asia including Middle East
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor > J28 - Safety; Job Satisfaction; Related Public Policy
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q13 - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
K - Law and Economics > K3 - Other Substantive Areas of Law > K31 - Labor Law
|Depositing User:||AMIT KUNDU|
|Date Deposited:||01. Oct 2010 19:39|
|Last Modified:||16. Feb 2013 01:03|
Antle John and Prabhu L. Pingali (1994): ‘Pesticides, Productivity and Farmer Health: A Philippine Case Study’; American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.76, No.3 pp. 418-430.
Bhalla.G.S. (2007): ‘Indian Agriculture since Independence’, National Book Trust, India.
Bliss.C. and N. Stern (1978): ‘Productivity, Wages and Nutrition: Part 1: The Theory’: Journal of Development Economics, Vol.5, Dec. pp. 331-362.
Clevo Wilson (2000): ‘Environmental and Human Costs of Commercial Agricultural Production in South Asia’; International Journal of Social Economics. Vol/27, pp. 816-846.
Kortbech. R. and Olsen.L (2003): ‘The World of Organic Agriculture’ IFOM, Tholey - Tholey Germany, pp- 21-26 Painuly J.P. and S. Mahendra Dev (1998): ‘Environmental Dimensions of Fertlizers and Pesticides Use; Relevance to Indian Agriculture’, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, Vol-10, No-2 pp. 273-288.
Pitt.M.M., M.R. Rosenwing and N. Hassan (1990): ‘ Productivity, Health and Inequality in the Intrahousehold Distribution of Food in Low Income Countries’, American Economic Review, Vol.80, Dec. pp- 1139-56.
Reddy. V. Ratna and Reddy. P. Prudhvikar: (2007, April-June): ‘Increasing Cost in Agriculture: Agrarian Crisis and Rural Labour in India’, The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Vol.50, No.2.
Raynolds,Lauro.T. (2004, May): ‘The Globalization of Organic Agro-Food Net Work’ World Development, Vol-32, No.5 pp 725-743.
Solow Robert M. (1979): ‘Another Possible Source of Wage Stickiness’; Journal of Macro Economics, Vol-1 pp 79-82