Mulholland, Sean E. (2011): Hate Source: White Supremacist Hate Groups and Hate Crime.
This is the latest version of this item.
Download (493Kb) | Preview
The relationship between hate group activity and hate crime is theoretically ambiguous. Hate groups may incite criminal behavior in support of their beliefs. On the other hand, hate groups may reduce hate crime by serving as a forum for members to verbally vent their frustrations or as protection from future biased violence. I find that the presence of an active white supremacist hate group chapter is associated with an 18.7 percent higher hate crime rate. White supremacist groups are not associated with the level of anti-white hate crimes committed by non-whites, nor do they form in expectation of future hate crimes by non-whites.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Hate Source: White Supremacist Hate Groups and Hate Crime|
|Keywords:||hate crime, hate groups, white supremacist|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D71 - Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J15 - Economics of Minorities and Races; Non-labor Discrimination
K - Law and Economics > K1 - Basic Areas of Law > K14 - Criminal Law
|Depositing User:||Sean Mulholland|
|Date Deposited:||21. Feb 2011 00:39|
|Last Modified:||21. Feb 2013 04:49|
Anti Defamation League Website. http://www.adl.org/. (Accessed February 4, 2005).
Berman, Eli. 2000. "Sect, Subsidy, and Sacrifice: An Economist.s View of Ultra-Orthodox Jews," Quarterly Journal of Economics. 115(3), 905-953.
Berman, Eli. "Hamas, Taliban, and the Jewish Underground: An Economist.s View of Radical Religious Militias." National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper. No. 10004.
Besci, Z. 1999. "Economics and Crime in the State." Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Economic Review, 38-56.
Boyd, Elizabeth, Richard Berk, and Karl Hamner.1996. "Motivated by Hatred or Prejudice : Categorization of Hate-Motivated Crimes in Two Police Divisions." Law & Society Review, 30(4): 819-850.
Buchanan, James M. 1975. The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan.University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL.
DiIulio, J. J., Jr. 1996. "Help Wanted: Economists, Crime and Public Policy." The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 3-24.
Gale, Lewis R.,Will C. Heath, and Rand W. Ressler. 2002. "An Economic Analysis of Hate Crime." Eastern Economic Journal 28: 203-15.
Glaeser, Edward L. 2005. "The Political Economy of Hatred," Quarterly Journal of Economics. 120(1), 45-86.
Green, Donald P., Jack Glaser, and Andrew Rich. 1998. "From Lynching to Gay-Bashing: The Elusive Connection Between Economic Conditions and Hate Crime." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 82-92.
Grove, W.R., M. Hughes, and M. Geerken. 1985. "Are Uniform Crime Reports a Valid Indicator of Index Crimes? An Affirmative Answer with Minor Qualifications." Criminology, 451-501.
Iannaccone, Laurence R. 1992. "Sacrifice and Stigma: Reducing Free-riding in Cults, Communes, and Other Collectives," Journal of Political Economy, 100(2), 271-291.
Jacobs, James and Kimberly Potter, 1998. Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics, New York: Oxford University Press.
Jefferson, Philip N, and Frederic L. Pryor, 1999. "On the Geography of Hate," Economics Letters, 65(3), 389-395.
Jenness, Valerie and Ryken Grattet. 2001. Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Katz, Jack, 1976. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.
Kleg, Milton. 1993. Hate Prejudice and Racism. (The State of New York: Albany Press).
Klein, M. W. 1995. The American street gang: Its nature, prevalence and control. New York: Oxford Univerity Press.
Krouse, William J. 2007. .CRS Report for Congress: Hate Crime Legislation.
Levin, Brian. 1993. "A Dream Deferred: the Social and Legal Implications of Hate Crimes in the 1990s". The Journal of Intergroup Relations, vol.XX, no. 3, Fall.
Maroney, Terry. A., 1998. "The Struggle Against Hate Crime: Movement at a Crossroads." New York University Law Review, 73(2): 564-620.
Martin, Susan. 1995. "A Cross-Burning is Not Just an Arson: Police Social Construct of Hate in Baltimore County." Criminology. 33(3): 303-326.
Martin, Susan. 1996. "Investigating Hate Crimes: Case Characteristics and Law Enforcement Responses." Justice Quarterly 13(3): 455-480.
McDevitt, Jack. and Jack Levin. 1993. "Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed". 9-19.
Medoff, Marshall. 1999. "Allocation of Time and Hateful Behavior: A Theoretical Analysis of Hate and Hate Crimes." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 58: 959-973.
Nozick, Robert. 1974. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. Basic Books: New York, NY.
Phillips, Scott and Ryken Grattet. 2000. "Judicial Rhetoric, Meaning-Making, and the Institutionalization of Hate Crime Laws." Law & Society Review 34(3): 567-602.
Rogers, W. H. 1993. Regression standard errors in clustered samples. Stata Technical Bulletin 13: 19.23. Reprinted in Stata Technical Bulletin Reprints, vol. 3, 88.94.
Ryan, Matt E., and Peter T. Leeson. 2010. "Hate Groups and Hate Crimes". Working Paper.
Sobel, Russell S. and Brian J. Osoba. 2009. "Youth Gangs as Pseudo-Governments: Implications for Violent Crime," Southern Economic Journal 75:4, pp. 996-1018.
Southern Poverty Law Center Website: http://www.splcenter.org/. (Accessed 07/18/08).
Southern Poverty Law Center. 1998. "474 Hate Groups Blanket America." Intelligence Report. Issue 89.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 1999. "Hate Groups Top 500." Intelligence Report. Issue 93.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2000. "The Decade in Review." Intelligence Report. Issue 97.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2001. "Blood on the Border." Intelligence Report. Issue 101.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2002. "The Year in Hate." Intelligence Report. Issue 105.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2003. "Hate Takes a Hit." Intelligence Report. Issue 109.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2004. "Age of Rage." Intelligence Report. Issue 114.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2005. "Holy War". Intelligence Report. Issue 117.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2006. "The Year in Hate". Intelligence Report. Issue 121.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2007. "The Year in Hate". Intelligence Report. Issue 125.
Southern Poverty Law Center. 2008. "The Year in Hate". Intelligence Report. Issue 129.
The Stephen Roth Institute. 2004. For The Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism Annual Report United States
U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY IDENTIFIERS CROSSWALK [UNITED STATES], 1996. 2000. [Computer file]. ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor]. doi:10.3886/ICPSR02876
United States Census. 1992 Census of Government. Volume 4. Government Finances. Number 5, Compendium of Government Finances.
United States Census. 1997 Census of Government. Volume 4. Government Finances. Compendium of Government Finances.
Weed, Frank, 1995. Certainty of Justice: Refonn in the Crime victim Movement. New York,NY: Aldine De Gruyter.
Williams, R. L. 2000. A note on robust variance estimation for cluster-correlated data. Biometrics 56: 645.646.
Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, 126(1), 25-51.
Wooldridge, J. M. 2002. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Available Versions of this Item
- Hate Source: White Supremacist Hate Groups and Hate Crime. (deposited 21. Feb 2011 00:39) [Currently Displayed]