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Кризис институтов политической конкуренции, интернет и коллаборативная демократия

Polterovich, Victor (2020): Кризис институтов политической конкуренции, интернет и коллаборативная демократия.

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The article is devoted to the study of the crisis of modern Western democracy. It is noted that the important causes of the crisis are slowing down of economic growth and deepening inequality in developed countries. It is shown that strong inter-party competition inevitably generates a mechanism of degradation of moral norms in the political sphere and reduction of the political system efficiency. These processes have intensified dramatically as a result of the spread of the Internet. They contributed to the reduction of citizens' participation in elections and at the same time to the "ochlocratization" of the political system.

It is shown as well that a number of transformations taking place in the Western countries are aimed at improvement of interaction between the state and society and contribute to crisis overcoming. These include expanding the role of parliamentary committees, increasing the number of parties, large-scale reforms of public sector governance basing on collaboration. In this context, the experience of e-platforms and the possibilities of institutional collaborative platforms are analyzed. The concept of collaborative democracy is proposed, based on the analysis of the trends studied. The mechanism for collaborative democracy should ensure greater choice and broader direct participation of citizens in decision-making, control the costs of political competition and maintain ethical standards, prevent ochlocratization, and improve governance. Contours of this mechanism are outlined. In particular, it should be based on the use of a proportional electoral system of a special type, a system of expert councils and collaborative platforms for public decision-making, as well as on the implementation of decision making rules close to consensus. The significance of these conclusions for Russia is discussed.

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