Osipian, Ararat (2007): “Feed from the Service”: Corruption and Coercion in the State—University Relations in Central Eurasia.
Download (193kB) | Preview
Education in Central Eurasia has become one of the industries, most affected by corruption. Corruption in academia, including bribery, extortions, embezzlement, nepotism, fraud, cheating, and plagiarism, is reflected in the region’s media and addressed in few scholarly works. This paper considers corruption in higher education as a product of interrelations between the government and academia. A substantial block of literature considers excessive corruption as an indicator of a weak state. In contrast to standard interpretations, this paper argues that in non-democratic societies corruption is used on a systematic basis as a mechanism of direct and indirect administrative control over higher education institutions. Informal approval of corrupt activities in exchange for loyalty and compliance with the regime may be used in the countries of Central Eurasia for the purposes of political indoctrination. This paper presents the concept of corruption and coercion in the state-university relations in Central Eurasia and outlines the model which incorporates this concept and the “feed from the service” approach. It presents implications of this model for the state-university relations and the national educational systems in Central Eurasia in general and offers some suggestions on curbing corruption.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||“Feed from the Service”: Corruption and Coercion in the State—University Relations in Central Eurasia|
|Keywords:||corruption, control, state, university, higher education, Central Eurasia|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I23 - Higher Education ; Research Institutions
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I28 - Government Policy
|Depositing User:||Ararat Osipian|
|Date Deposited:||29. Sep 2008 03:26|
|Last Modified:||15. Feb 2013 20:12|
Almond, G. & Coleman, J. (1960) The Politics of the Developing Areas. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Anderson, K. & Heyneman, S. (2005) Education and Social Policy Reform in Central Asia: The Next Stage of The Transition, Social Policy and Administration, 39(4), 361-380.
Andreski, S. (1976) Parasitism and Subversion: The Case of Latin America. New York: Random House.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, J. (1995) The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Arora, D. (1993) Conceptualising the Context and Contextualising the Concept: Corruption Reconsidered, Indian Journal of Public Administration, 39, 1-19.
Bagrat Esayan razobralsya s korruptsiey, teper’ zajmetsia obraozovaniem [Bagrat Esayan eliminated corruption and now is going to take up on education]. Yerevan.ru, May 19, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2007, from http://www.yerevan.ru/news/?task=detailed&id=4195
Becker, G. & Stigler, G. (1974) Law Enforcement, Malfeasance, and the Compensation of Enforcers, Journal of Legal Studies, 3, 1-8.
Bel’chenko, V. (2008) Administrative expenses. Ogonek, 31, 24-25.
Choi, J. & Thum, M. (1998) The Economics of Repeated Extortion. Columbia University Working Paper No. 9899-03. Retrieved March 22, 2008, from SSRN at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=145174.
Darden, K. (2001) Blackmail as a Tool of State Domination. East European Constitutional Review, 10(2-3).
Darden, K. (2002). Graft and Governance: Corruption as an Informal Mechanism of State Control. New Haven, CT: Yale University Working Paper.
DeYoung, A. (2007) Conceptualizing Post-Secondary Education Paradoxes in the Kyrgyz Republic. Annual Conference of the Central Eurasian Studies Society (CESS), University of Washington, Seattle, WA, October, 2007.
Dodolev, E. & Gdlian, T. (1991) Mafia Vremen Bezzakoniya [Mafia in Times of Lawlessness]. Yerevan: TSK KP Armenii.
Doyle, W. (1984) The Price of Offices in Pre-Revolutionary France. The Historical Journal, 27(4), 831-860.
Drummond, T. & DeYoung, A. (2003) Perspectives and problems in education reform in Kyrgyzstan: The case of national scholarship testing. In S. Heyneman & A. DeYoung, The Challenges of Education in Central Asia (225-242). Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.
Eggers, A. & Hainmueller, J. (2008) MPs for Sale? Estimating Returns to Office in Post-War British Politics. Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Science. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, MPRA. Retrieved March 22, 2008, from http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/7892/1/MPRA_paper_7892.pdf
Filina, O. (2008) Bribery, Ogonek, 31, 20-23. Goodall, L. (1987) When Colleges Lobby States. Washington, DC: American Association of State Colleges and Universities.
Goorha, P. (2000) Corruption: Theory and Evidence Through Economies in Transition, International Journal of Social Economics, 27(12), 21-36.
Gorodnichenko, Y. & Sabirianova, K. (2006) Public Sector Pay and Corruption: Measuring Bribery from Micro Data. Paper submitted to the NEUDC annual conference, Ithaca, NY, 2006.
Greenwald, I. (1996) Central Asia’s Universities Face Challenges in Post-Soviet Era. The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 22, 1996.
Guliev, D. (2007) Esli obrazovanie v Azerbajdzhane ne vosstanovitsya, to eto mozhet privesti k raspadu gosudarstva [If education in Azerbaijan will not be restored, it may lead to the state collapse]. Radio Azadlyg, February 18, 2007. Retrieved March 24, 2007, from http://aznocorruption.org/cgi-bin/e-cms/vis/vis.pl?s=001&p=0014&n=000660&g=
Hallak, J. & Poisson, M. (2007) Corrupt Schools, Corrupt Universities: What Can Be Done? Paris: IIEP.
Heyneman, S. (2004) Education and Corruption, International Journal of Educational Development, 24, 638-658.
Heyneman, S. (2007) Three Universities in Georgia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: the Struggle against Corruption and for Social Cohesion, Prospects, 37(3), 305-318.
Heyneman, S., Anderson, K. & Nuraliyeva, N. (2008) The Cost of Corruption in Higher Education, Comparative Education Review, 52(1), 1-26.
Hodgkinson, P. (1997) The Sociology of Corruption: Some Themes and Issues, Sociology, 31(1), 17-35.
Hrebenar, R. (1997) Interest Group Politics in America. Armonk, NY: Sharpe.
Hyde, J. (1972) Commune, University, and Society in Early Medieval Bologna. In J. Baldwin & A. Goldswaite (Eds) Universities in Politics. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.
International Crisis Group. (2003). Youth in Central Asia: Losing the New Generation. Asia Report, 66 (October), International Crisis Group, Brussels. Retrieved from http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?idp2342&lp1
Ivanov, N. & Gdlian, T. (1994) Kremlevskoe Delo [Kremlin Investigation]. Moscow: Kniga.
Johnston, M. (1996) The Search for Definitions: The Vitality of Politics and the Issue of Corruption, International Social Science Journal, 149, 310- 326.
Kandelaki, G. (2005) Education: A Drag on Georgia’s Reform, Eurasianet.org, April 14, 2005. Retrieved March 20, 2007, from http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/civilsociety/articles/eav041405.shtml
Leach, J. (1999) The New Russian Menace, New York Times, September 10, 1999.
Lederman, D. (1997) Political Action Committees Help Lawmakers Who Help Colleges, The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 18, 1997.
Lin-Liu, J. (2005) In Mongolia, the Free Market Overtakes Higher Education: Private colleges burgeon as public universities languish from lack of resources. The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 4, 2005. Retrieved June 22, 2005, from 200http://chronicle.com/weekly/v51/i22/22a03701.htm
MacDestler, I. (2002) Education in Applied Economics in Central Asia: Findings and Recommendations. March 17, 2002. Retrieved April 5, 2007, from www.puaf.umd.edu/faculty/destler/CentralAsia.Findings.Recomendations.pdf
Mavlianov, A. & Stetar, J. (2007) Development of Higher Education in Kyrgyzstan. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), Baltimore, MD, February, 2007.
McLendon, M. & Eddings, D. (2002) Direct Democracy and Higher Education, Educational Policy, 16(1), 193-220.
McLendon, M. (2003) Setting the Governmental Agenda for State Decentralization of Higher Education, The Journal of Higher Education, 74(5), 2003, 11-37.
McLendon, M. (2004) Straddling Market and State: Higher Education Governance and Finance Reform in Kazakhstan. In S. Heyneman & A. DeYoung (Eds) The Challenges for Education in Central Asia. New York: Information Age Publishing.
Moore, K. (2004) Central Asia: Buying Ignorance -- Corruption in Education Widespread, Corrosive (Part 1). Radio Free Europe, July 7, 2004. Retrieved April 5, 2007, from http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2004/07/7a4c4452-4ce5-44ee-a0e8-cbc94cb81d8a.html
Nemtsova, A. (2008). Georgia Turns to the West for Ideas Amid political tensions, the former Soviet state says Russia no longer influences its universities. The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 27, 2008.
Nye, J. (1967) Corruption and Political Development: a Cost-Benefit Analysis, American Political Science Review, 61(2), 417-427.
Osborn, D. (1997) Corruption as Counter-Culture: Attitudes to Bribery in Local and Global Society. In B. Rider (Ed) Corruption: The Enemy Within. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Osipian, A. (2007) Corruption in Higher Education: Conceptual Approaches and Measurement Techniques, Research in Comparative and International Education, 2(4), 313-332.
Osipian, A. (2008) Corruption and Coercion: University Autonomy versus State Control, European Education: Journal of Issues and Studies, forthcoming.
Osipian, A. (2008) Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc, International Journal of Educational Development, forthcoming.
Pannier, B. (2004) Central Asia: Buying ignorance? Corruption touches many different lives (Part 2), Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, July 7, 2004, Retrieved August 2, 2006, from http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2004/07/1ba915a6-32f5-4646-820e-2a2a1487fd1a.htm
Payne, P. (1975) The Corrupt Society: From Ancient Greece to Present-Day America. New York: Praeger Publishers.
Petrov, G. & Temple, P. (2004) Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union, Higher Education Management and Policy, 16(1), 82-94.
Priks, M. (2005) Optimal Rent Extraction in Pre-Industrial England and France - Default Risk and Monitoring Costs. CESifo Working Paper Series No. 1464. Retrieved March 22, 2008, from SSRN at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=720883
Rose-Ackerman, S. (1974) The Economics of Corruption. Philadelphia, PA: Pennsylvania University, Fels Discussion Paper #53.
Rose-Ackerman, S. (1998) Corruption: A Study in Political Economy. New York, NY: Academic Press.
Salehi-Esfahani, H. & Thornton, J. (1998) The Dilemma of Reforming Economics Education in the Post-Socialist Economy of Uzbekistan: has Anything Changed? Central Asian Survey, 17(2), 253-265.
Sanghera, B. & Ilyasov, A. (2006) Moral sentiments and professionalism in post-socialist societies: understanding professional practices and ethics in Kyrgyzstan, University of Kent, Research paper. Retrieved December 22, 2007, from http://www.kent.ac.uk/sspssr/research/papers/moral.pdf
Sanghera, B. & Romanchuk, N. (2002) Bribery in Kyrgyz State Universities. Is there anything to worry about? Research paper. Retrieved April 5, 2007, from http://uk.geocities.com/balihar_sanghera/qrmnadezhdaromanchukbriberyinuniversities.html
Sanghera, B. & Satybaldieva, E. (2007) Moral sentiments and economic practices in Kyrgyzstan: the internal embeddedness of a moral economy, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Advanced access September 17, 2007, pp. 1-15, Retrieved December 22, 2007, from http://cje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/bem020v1
Satarov, G. (2006) Corruption Process in Russia: Level, Structure, Trends. In G. Satarov (Ed) Diagnostics of Corruption in Russia: 2001-2005, INDEM Foundation, 2006. Retrieved from http://www.indem.ru/en/publicat/2005diag_engV.htm
Sayed, T. & Bruce, D. (1998) Police Corruption: Towards a Working Definition, African Security Review, 7(1). Retrieved May 20, 2007, from www.iss.co.za/Pubs/ASR/7.1/Sayed%20&%20Bruce.html;
Shlapentokh, V. (2003) Russia’s Acquiescence to Corruption Makes the State Machine Inept, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 36(2), 151-161.
Shlapentokh, V. (2006) Are Today’s Authoritarian Leaders Doomed to be Indicted When They Leave Office? The Russian and Other Post-Soviet Cases, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 39(4), 447-473.
Shleifer, A. & Treisman, D. (2003) A Normal Country, NBER Working Paper 10057
Shleifer, A. & Vishny, R. (1993) Corruption, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3), 599-618.
Silova, I. (2005) Traveling Policies: hijacked in Central Asia, European Educational Research Journal, 4(1), 50-59.
Silova, I., Johnson, M. & Heyneman, S. (2007) Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia, Comparative Education Review, 51(2), 159-180.
Solomon, P. & Foglesong, T. (2001) The Two Faces of Crime in Post-Soviet Ukraine, East European Constitutional Review, 19(3).
Sosa, L. (2004) Wages and Other Determinants of Corruption, Review of Development Economics, 8(4), 597-605.
Swart, K. (1946) Sale of Offices in the Seventeenth Century. Den Haag: Nijhoff.
Swart, K. (2002) The Sale of Public Offices. In A. Heidenheimer & M. Johnston (Eds) Political Corruption: Concepts and Contexts (95-106). New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.
Taksanov, A. (2003) Yavlenie korruptsii v Uzbekistane [Phenomenon of corruption in Uzbekistan], CentrAziya, May 3, 2003.
Transparency International 2006. Corruption Perceptions Index. Retrieved from http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi
Ukaz prezidenta Respubliki Kazahstan “O Gosudarstvennoj programme bor’by s korrupciej na 2006-2010 gody” [The Order of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan “About the State Program to fight Corruption in 2006-2010”] The Office of the Attorney General of the Republic of Kazakhstan. December 23, 2005. Retrieved June 22, 2007, from http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:JnDodw-BxO4J:www.procuror.kz
Van Rijckeghem, C. & Weber, B. (2001) Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and By How Much? Journal of Development Economics, 65(2), 307-331.
Volodin, V. (2006) Utechka mozgov i vse-vse-vse. Nasha versiya, October 5, 2006. Retrieved April 5, 2007 from http://www.nashaversia.net/ru/edu/article33
Waite, D. & Allen, D. (2003) Corruption and Abuse of Power in Educational Administration. The Urban Review, 35(4), 281-296.
White, G. (1996) Corruption and the Transition from Socialism in China. In M. Levi & D. Nelken (Eds) The Corruption of Politics and the Politics of Corruption. Oxford: Blackwell.
Woronowycz, R. (2003) Nationwide Survey Reveals Culture of Corruption in Ukraine, Ukrainian Weekly, LXXI, 4, January 26, 5.
Zaynabitdinov, V. (2004) V Uzbekistane nuzhno sozdat’ ministerstvo po bor’be s korruptsiey [It is necessary to create a special Ministry that would fight corruption in Uzbekistan]. October 15, 2004. Report during the Plenary Session of OSCE. Retrieved June 22, 2007, from www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php4?st=1097552940
Zhdanov, I. (2002) Corruption in Ukraine: Essence, Scale, and Influence. Connections, 1(2). Retrieved May 20, 2004, from http://www.ciaonet.org/olj/co/co_apr02d.pdf
Zhertvennikov, S. (2004) Korruptsiya v Uzbekistane [Corruption in Uzbekistan]. Retrieved June 22, 2007, from http://www.centrasia.ru/newsA.php4?st=1075586100
Zhu, J. (2008) Why are Offices for Sale in China? Asian Survey, 48(4), 558-579.