Rena, Ravinder (2007): DISTANCE EDUCATION AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR THE RED SEA NATION ERITREA: A DISCOURSE. Published in: Australian Journal of Adult Learning , Vol. 47, No. 3 (20. November 2007): pp. 492-519.
Download (103kB) | Preview
All over the world, distance mode of education is gaining a momentum and becoming more popular than conventional education. It is a system in which schools, universities and other educational agencies offer instruction wholly or partly by mail. Eritrea, a newly independent country in Africa has been facing many challenges particularly in its education sector. It does not have sufficient educational institutions at tertiary level, thus, distance learning which is more cost effective, could be an alternative method of higher education for this country. The distance education programme could promote higher education by providing access to large number of urban people and disadvantaged groups in rural and remote areas including working people, fighters, women and other adults. An attempt has been made in this paper to discuss various issues related to the establishment and development of distance education. It also provides the distance education programmes that so far undertaken in Eritrea and highlights the potential for the distance education in the country.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||DISTANCE EDUCATION AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR THE RED SEA NATION ERITREA: A DISCOURSE|
|Keywords:||Distance Education, Eritrea, Potential, Ministry of Education, UNISA|
|Subjects:||A - General Economics and Teaching > A2 - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics > A20 - General
A - General Economics and Teaching > A2 - Economic Education and Teaching of Economics > A23 - Graduate
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I21 - Analysis of Education
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I28 - Government Policy
|Depositing User:||Ravinder Rena|
|Date Deposited:||16. Oct 2008 04:43|
|Last Modified:||21. May 2015 05:15|
Baumgartner, T.A. and Strong, C.H. (1998). Conducting and Reading Research in Health and Human Performance. Boston: The McGraw – Hill Companies, Inc.
Carrol, D. ( February, 2004). Pedagogy and Assessment in the new curriculum. Ministry of Education, Asmara, Eritrea.
Daniel, J.S. Mega, (1996). Universities and Knowledge Media, Technology Strategies for Higher Education. London, Kogan Page Ltd.
Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1994). Strategies of inquiry. In Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research. (pp.199 – 208). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers.
Harry, K. (1992). Distance Education today and tomorrow. A personal Perspective. Educational Media International, 29(3), 189 – 192.
Holmberg. B.( 1995). The Evolution of Character and Practice in Distance Education.10 (2): 47-53.
Keast, D.A. (1997). Towards an Effective Model for Implementing Distance Education Programs. American Journal of Distance Education, 11(2), 39 – 55.
Keegan, D. (1996).The Foundation of Distance Education. London: Croom Helm.
Keegan, D. and Rumble, G. (1982).Distance teaching at University level. In Rumble, G. and Harry, K (ed) Distance teaching Universities. New York: St. Martins press, p.15.
Keegan, D. (1983). On Defining Distance Education. In Stewart, D. Keegan, D. and Hoeberg, B.(Eds.) Distance Education. New York: St. Martins press, p.27.
Khan, J. (1993). Human Resource Development in the public sector; A Developing Country experience, International Journal of Public Sector Management 61(1), 48 – 58.
Killion, T. (1998).Historical Dictionary of Eritrea. Lamhom: Scarecrow Press.
Kvale, S. (1996). An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers.
Marrs, L. (1995). An Analysis of Distance Education and Educational Technology. Offices of continuing Education and Information and Telecommunication Services.
Bellingham, Washington: Western Washington University. Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Application in Education. San Fracisco: Jossey – Bass, Inc.
Ministry of Education, UNESCO and the Government of Italy (1996). Guidelines for Policy Framework on Open and Distance Education. Asmara: Eritrea. (January 23).
Ministry of Education (June 1999). Our People are our future: A frame work for the development of human resources in the education sector. Asmara: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education (2003). Eritrea: Basic Education Statistics 2002-2003. Eritrea. Asmara, Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education (2006).Tertiary Education in Eritrea: Issues, Policies, and Challenges. 13 (56 and 57) (Part- I and II on 20 and 23 September). Eritrea Profile p2-3.
Moore, M.G. (1990). Recent Contribution to the Theory of Distance Education. Open Learning, 5 (3), 10 – 13.
Moore, M.G. and Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A System View. Belmont: California: Wadsworth Publishing.
Rena, Ravinder (2004). Educational Development in Eritrea, Asmara: Eritrea Profile 11(12), p.6.
Rena, Ravinder (2005a). Gender Disparity in Education – An Eritrean Perspective, USA: Global Child Journal 2(1),43-49.
Rena, Ravinder (2005b). Eritrean Education – Retrospect and Prospect, Nairobi (Kenya ): Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities and Sciences,.5(2).1-12.
Rena, Ravinder (2005c). Financing of Education in Eritrea – A Case Study on Zoba Maakel, Albany (USA): The African Symposium, 5(3) 113-128.
Rena, Ravinder (2006). Education and Human Resource Development in Post-independent Eritrea- An Analysis. Barbados: West Indies, International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2 (4).
Rena, Ravinder(2007). Challenges In Introducing Distance Education Programme In Eritrea – Some Observations And Implications. Turkey: Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education- 8(1). pp.191-205 .
tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde25/pdf/article_15.pdf Rumble, Grevile and Joao Oliveria (1999). Vocational Education at a Distance. International Perspectives. London: Kogan Page.
Saint, W. (1999). Tertiary Distance Education and Technology in Sub Saharan Africa. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, ADEA working group on higher education.
Sweet, R. (1986). Student Drop Out in Distance Education the Foundations of effective Practice. San Francisco, Calilfornia: Jossey – Bass Publishers.
Taye, A. (1992). A Historical Survey of state of Education in Eritrea. Asmara: Educational Materials Production and Distribution Agency (EMPDA).
Terry, E. and Philip Juler (1991). Research in Distance Education. London: Macmillan.
University of Asmara (2002). Prospectus 2002 – 2003. MBY Publishing and printing, Asmara, Eritrea.
University of Asmara (2004).Records of the Consultancy and Testing Center University of Asmara. Eritrea.
Visser, J. (14 April, 1994). Distance Education for the Nine High – Population Countries. Paris: UNESCO Basic Education Division.
Wills, B. (October, 1995). Distance Learning at a Glance. University of Idaho Engineering Outreach, Available at http://www.uidaho.edu/evo/distglan.html accessed on 23 July 2006.
Wills, B. (1998). Effective distance education planning: lessons learned. Educational Technology, 38 (1), 57 – 59. www.shaebia.org – selected articles related to the study.