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Türkiye’nin kalkinma anlayisinin dönüsümünde IMF-dünya bankasi yapisal uyum politikalarinin rolü

Soyak, Alkan and Eroğlu, Nadir (2008): Türkiye’nin kalkinma anlayisinin dönüsümünde IMF-dünya bankasi yapisal uyum politikalarinin rolü. Published in: Proceedings of international symposium on globalization, democratization, and turkey

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Implementation of structural adjustment policies in Developing Countries (DCs) signifies a rupture from the development, modernisation and industrialisation policies which were under state’s control, contrary to the industrialised states’ experiences. Even though the intensity and extension of the state intervention vary, the very rupture engendered by structural adjustment policies has created many important influences in the states that have experienced this break-off pertaining to the protection of industry, marketing of agricultural products, distribution of foreign currencies and loans, arrangement of the foreign trade operations, arrangements related to the outside capital, technology and labour markets and collective agreements (Ghai, 1995:50). All these matters have become the objects of the transformation being experienced in the DCs’ development perception. The planned industrialisation and modernisation model basing upon import substitution that was put into effect in Turkey as from the early 1960s has toppled into a severe crisis as a result of the adjustment problems that became evident during the oil crisis of the early 1970s. Firstly, the growth rate slowed down, then it turned negative, inflation began to increase and since it was hardly possible to allocate funds for the funding of importation scarcity of goods has emerged in the internal market. Along with the chronic economic and socio-political crisis Turkey has come to the threshold of the parting of the ways in 1980. The Stability Measures of the 24th of January 1980, along with the acceleration of the military intervention of the 12th September, beyond maintaining short-term economic stability, also undertook a mission of launching “structural adjustment” and of changing long-term accumulation regime. Even though IMF supported stability programmes had been implemented before 1980 as a result of the relations with IMF, the 1980 programme and its aftermath differ by its content and influences; the structural adjustment policies of the IMF and World Bank became determinant on Turkey’s economic policies as from this date. (Soyak, 2006:140).

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