Bonpasse, Morrison (2006): The Single Global Currency: Common Cents for the World. Published in:
Download (1MB) | Preview
This is the only book in print in the world about the single global currency, and is the only book in the world priced in 147 currencies. It describes the origins of the current worldwide foreign exchange system, and tells how to change it; and save the world - trillions. The multicurrency foreign exchange trading system was developed about 2,500 years ago to enable people of different currency areas to trade. That system has become far more sophisticated in the meantime and handles $2.5 trillion per day; but it is very expensive and risky. It is now time to replace that system with a single global currency. In a 3-G world with a single global currency managed by a global central bank within a global monetary union: - Annual transaction costs of $400 billion will be eliminated. - Worldwide asset values will increase by about $36 trillion. - Worldwide GDP will increase by about $9 trillion. - Global currency imbalances will be eliminated. - All Balance of Payments problems will be eliminated. - Currency crises will be prevented. - Currency speculation will be eliminated. - The need for foreign exchange reserves, with a current annual opportunity cost of approximately $470 billion, will be eliminated. Such gains are realistic and attainable if the world decides to pursue them. The monetary unions of Europe, the Caribbean, Africa and Brunei/Singapore have shown the way. What the people of the world want is sound, stable money and the end to the obsolete multicurrency foreign exchange system. A single global currency is no longer a utopian dream, but a realistic projection of what has been learned from current monetary unions, especially the euro. Each successive annual edition of this book will be priced in the remaining number of currencies until we reach, in the words of Nobel Prize winner, Robert Mundell, that odd number, preferably less than three: one The world needs to set the goal of a single global currency, to be managed by a global central bank, within a global monetary union, and begin planning - now.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||Single Global Currency Assn.|
|Original Title:||The Single Global Currency: Common Cents for the World|
|Keywords:||single global currency; money; currency; monetary union; global monetary union; global central bank; global imbalances; current account; balance of payments; transaction charges; foreign exchange; foreign exchange reserves; monetary reserves; gold; international monetary fund; SDR; special drawing rights; optimal currency area; OCA; Robert Mundell; John Stuart Mill; dollar; European Monetary Union; euro; European Central Bank; Single Global Currency Association; Bretton Woods; John Maynard Keynes; bancor; dollarization; euroization; exchange rate; exchange rate regime; peg; float;|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F3 - International Finance > F33 - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
F - International Economics > F0 - General > F02 - International Economic Order and Integration
F - International Economics > F3 - International Finance > F31 - Foreign Exchange
|Depositing User:||Morrison Bonpasse|
|Date Deposited:||14. Dec 2006|
|Last Modified:||29. Sep 2015 13:08|
Akitoby, Bernardin. "Pricing of Sovereign Risk in Emerging Markets." IMF Research, March 2006, at http://www.imf.org/External/Pubs/FT/irb/2006/eng/01/index.pdf
Alagiah, Ratnam. "A Single Global Currency and its Impact on Accounting." Working Paper, Griffith University, 2006.
Alinsky, Saul D. Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1971, revised edition 1989.
Al-Mansouri, Abdulrahman K. L., and Claudia Dziobek. "Providing Official Statistics for the Common Market and Monetary Union in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Countries: A Case for 'Gulfstat'." IMF Working Paper 06/38, February 2006, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2006/wp0638.pdf
Arias, Andres, Gary D. Hansen, and Lee E. Ohanian. "Why have Business Cycle Fluctuations Become Less Volatile?" NBER Working Paper No. 12079, March 2006, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, at http://papers.nber.org/papers/W12079.
Angeloni, I., L.Aucremanne, and M. Ciccarelli. "Price setting and Inflation Persistence: Did EMU matter?" May 2005, at http://www.ecb.int/events/pdf/conferences/emu/sessionV_Angeloni_Paper.pdf
Alesina , Alberto, and Robert J. Barro. "Introduction," Currency Unions. Edited by Alberto Alesina and Robert J. Barro, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2001.
Amato, Jeffrey, Andrew Filardo, Gabriele Galati, Goetz von Peter and Feng Zhu. "Research on Exchange Rates and Monetary Policy: an Overview" by the Monetary and Economic Department of the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, Switzerland. June 2005, at http://www.bis.org/publ/work178.htm.
American Economics Association, 2005. "Doctoral Dissertations in Economics, One-Hundred-Second Annual List." Journal of Economic Literature, December 2005, Number 4, pp. 1196-199. 2006. "Preliminary Announcement of the Program." Annual meeting of the American Economic Association, 6-8 January 2006, Boston, Massachusetts, at http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AEA/assa06.htm.
Arbelaez, Harvey. "The Political Economy of the Dollarization Debate in the Americas: Pros and Cons, Myths and Realities, Issues and Implications." from a First Paper Development Workshop in Stockholm, July, 2004, at http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=cache:iVS0990SdxAJ:faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/ciber/programs/pdf/arbe.pdf+%22harvey+arbelaez%22+dollarization.
Arestis, Philip, and Santonou Basu. "Financial Globalization: Some Conceptual Problems." Levy Economics Institute Working Paper 397, December 2003, at http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/it/papers/0301/0301002.pdf
Aslam, Abid. "World Leaders Agree Poor Countries Need Debt Relief, But Can't Agree on Plan." One World, 18 April 2005, at Global Policy Forum at http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/develop/debt/2005/0418worldleaders.htm
Australia, Reserve Bank of, Bulletin. "Measuring Profits from Currency Issue." July 1997, pp. 1-4.
Backe, Peter, and Christian Thimann and including Olga Arratibel, Oscar Calvo-Gonzalez, Arnaud Mehl, and Caroline Nerlich. "The Acceding Countries' Strategies towards ERM II and the Adoption of the Euro: An Analytical Review." February 2004, at http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpops/ecbocp10.pdf.
Baker, Raymond. Capitalism's Achilles Heel: Dirty Money and How to Renew the Free-Market System. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Bank for International Settlements. 2004. "Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Derivatives Market Activity in April 2004--Preliminary Global Results." 28 September 2004, at http://www.bis.org/press/p040928.htm. The final results were published in March 2005, at http://www.bis.org/publ/rpfx05.htm. 2005. 75 Annual Report. Chapter 6, "Foreign Exchange Markets," pp. 77-87, at http://www.bis.org/publ/arpdf/ar2005e5.htm. 2006a (Website). "BIS History." At http://www.bis.org/about/history.htm 2006b (Website). "BIS Effective Exchange Rate Indices." 6 March 2006, at http://www.bis.org/statistics/eer/index.htm
Bannister, Geoffrey, Hamid R. Davoodi, Rosa Valdivieso, Ulric Erickson von Allmen, Felix Fischer, Eva Jenkner, and Mona Said, all of the International Monetary Fund. "Choosing an Exchange Rate Regime" in "West Bank and Gaza Economic Performance, Prospects, and Policies Achieving Prosperity and Confronting Demographic Challenges." 2001, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/nft/2001/west/.
Basevi, Giorgio, Lorenzo Pecchi, and Gustavo Piga. "Parallel Monies, Parallel Debt: Lessons from the EMU and Options for the New EU." Tor Vergata University Research Paper Series, Working Paper No. 68, January 2005, at ftp://www.ceistorvergata.it/repec/rpaper/No-68-Basevi-Pecchi-Piga.pdf.
Beidas, Samya, and Magda Kandil. "Setting the Stage for a National Currency in the West Bank and Gaza: The Choice of Exchange Rate Regime." IMF Working Paper 05/70, April 2005, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2005/wp0570.pdf
Bellamy, Edward. Looking Backward. 1915, at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/BELLAMY/ch28.html.
Benassy-Quere, Agnes, and Edouard Turkisch. "ECB Governance in an Enlarged Eurozone." CEPII Working Paper No 2005-20, Paris, at http://www.cepii.fr/anglaisgraph/workpap/pdf/2005/wp05-20.pdf
Bernanke, Ben S. 2002. "Deflation: Making Sure 'It' Doesn't Happen Here." Speech before National Economists Club, Washington, DC, November, 2002, at http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2002/20021121/default.htm. 2005. Sandridge Lecture, 10 March 2005, at http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2005/200503102/default.htm
Bergsten, C. Fred. "Rescuing the Doha Round." Foreign Affairs, WTO Special Edition, December 2005, at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20051201faessay84702/c-fred-bergsten/rescuing-the-doha-round.html
Bird, Graham, and Dane Rowlands. "Bi-Polar Disorder: Exchange Rate Regimes, Economic Crises, and the IMF" 26 April 2005, at http://www.econ.surrey.ac.uk/discussion_papers/2005/DP07-05.pdf
Bonner, Bill, and Addison Wiggin. Empire of Debt. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
Bravo-Ortega, Claudio, and Julian Di Giovanni. "Remoteness and Real Exchange Rate Volatility." IMF Working Paper No. WP/05/1, January 2005, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2005/wp0501.pdf
Brown, Gregory W., and Donald H. Chew, Editors. Corporate Risk - Strategies and Management. London, UK: Risk Books, 1999, at http://db.riskwaters.com/public/showPage.html?page=book_page&tempPageName=154028
Bryan, Dick, "Currency Unification: Dollarize or Die?" in Workers Online, 27 April 2001, at http://workers.labor.net.au/93/c_historicalfeature_dollar.html.
Bryant, Ralph C. Turbulent Waters-Cross-Border Finance and International Governance. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.
Buffett, Warren. "Why I'm Not Buying the U.S. Dollar." Fortune magazine, 26 October 2003, at http://www.pbs.org/wsw/news/fortunearticle_20031026_03.html
Buiter, Willem. 1999a. "The EMU and the NAMU: What is the Case for North American Monetary Union?" Canadian Public Policy, September 1999, pp. 285-96, at http://qed.econ.queensu.ca/pub/cpp/sept1999/Buiter.pdf 1999b. "Optimal Currency Areas: Why Does the Exchange Rate Matter?" Remarks at the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, 26 October 1999, at http://www.nber.org/~wbuiter/scotland.pdf
Buiter, Willem, Richard Layard, Christopher Huhne, Will Hutton, Peter Kenen and Adair Turner, with a foreword by Paul Volcker. "Why Britain Should Join the Euro." 1 August 2002, at http://cep.lse.ac.uk/layard/RL334D.pdf
Burke, Sharon, and edited by Klaus Volpert. "Currency Exchange Trading and Rogue Trader John Rusnak." Villanova University, 2004, at http://www.publications.villanova.edu/Concept/2004/John_Rusnak.pdf
Bystrom, Hans N.E., Karin Olofsdotter, and Lars Soderstrom. "Is China an Optimum Currency Area?" Journal of Asian Economics, August 2005, pp. 612-34, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6W53-4GMJ958-1/2/1b13be7ee1c23c16bc6a05ca6e9589bc
Cai, Junning. "Currency Manipulation versus Current Account Manipulation." October 2005, at http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/if/papers/0510/0510023.pdf.
Calvo, Guillermo A., and Carmen M. Reinhart. "Fear of Floating." Working Paper No. W7993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA: November 2000, at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=248599
Camarero, Mariam, Renato Flores, and Cecilio Tamrait. "Monetary Union and Productivity Differences in Mercosur countries." Journal of Policy Modeling, January 2006, pp. 53-66, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V82-4H21FN1-1/2/0ddf39a20e2b6569adaa7b24a23d60c5
Cappiello, Lorenzo, Elizaveta Krylova, and Roberto A. De Santis. "Explaining Exchange Rate Dynamics--the Uncovered Equity Return Parity Condition." European Central Bank, Working Paper 529, September 2005, at http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp529.pdf.
Carchedi, Guidliemo. For Another Europe. London, UK: Verso Publishers, 2001.
Carr, Jack L., and John E. Floyd. "Real and Monetary Shocks to the Canadian Dollar: Do Canada and the U.S. Form an Optimal Currency Area?" University of Toronto Working Paper #UT-ECIPA-Floyd-01-02, at http://www.epas.utoronto.ca/ecipa/archive/UT-ECIPA-FLOYD-01-02.pdf
Cerrato, Mario, Neil Kellard, and Nicholas Sarantis. "The Purchasing Power Parity Persistence Paradigm: Evidence from Black Currency Markets." November 2004, Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005, at http://repec.org/mmfc05/paper34.pdf.
Chang, Michele. "Reforming the Stability and Growth Pact: Size and Influence in EMU Policymaking." European Integration, March 2006, pp. 107-20, at http://journalsonline.tandf.co.uk/(h1ullo55zel4sze25bxro5m1)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,8,8;journal,1,17;linkingpublicationresults,1:300255,1
Chaplygin, Vladimir, Andrew Hughes Hallett, and Christian Richter. "Monetary Integration in the Ex-Soviet Union: A 'union of four'?" Economics of Transition, March 2006, at http://www.webmeets.com/files/papers/SAE/2004/118/The%20gang%20of%20four%20_final_.pdf
Chernyshoff, Natalia, David Jacks and Alan Taylor. "Stuck on Gold: Real Exchange Rate Volatility and the Rise and Fall of the Gold Standard." National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 11795, November 2005 at http://papers.nber.org/papers/W11795.
Cheung, Yin-Wong, Menzie Chinn, and Antonio Garcia Pascual. "Empirical Exchange Rate Models of the Nineties: Are Any Fit to Survive?" IMF Working Paper WP/04/73, April 2004, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2004/wp0473.pdf
Chinn, Menzie. "The (Partial) Rehabilitation of Interest Rate Parity in the Floating Rate Era: Longer Horizons, Alternative Expectations, and Emerging Markets." Journal of International Money and Finance, February 2006, pp. 7-21, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V9S-4HS3BKY-2&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2006&_alid=356849919&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5906&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=7de1fe563e1846b0ceb03e23861c4861
Chinn, Menzie, and Hiro Ito. "An Update on Medium-Term Determinants of Current Account Imbalances--The 'Savings Glut' Hypothesis Examined." Preliminary Draft, 1 August 2005, at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~mchinn/Chinn_Ito_CAmemo.pdf
Chinn, Menzie, and Jeffrey Frankel. "Will the Euro Eventually Surpass the Dollar as Leading International Reserve Currency?" National Bureau of Economic Research, 16 August 2005, at http://www.nber.org/papers/w11510
Choudhri, Ehsan U., and Mohsin S. Khan. "Real Exchange Rates in Developing Countries: Are Balassa-Samuelson Effects Present?" IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 52, Number 3, 3 November 2005, at http://www.imf.org/External/Pubs/FT/staffp/2005/04/choudhri.htm
Chown, John. A History of Monetary Unions. London, UK: Routledge, 2003. See review by Lawrence Officer at Economic History.Net at http://www.eh.net/bookreviews/library/0832.shtml
Chung, Joanna. "Eurozone bond yields diverge." MSNBC, 15 February 2006, at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/11370951/
Clark, William. "Petrodollar Warfare: Dollars, Euros and the Upcoming Iranian Oil Bourse." Energy Bulletin. 2 August 2005, at http://www.energybulletin.net/7707.html.
Cline, William. The United States as a Debtor Nation. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, September 2005.
Cohen, Benjamin J. 2004. The Future of Money, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. 2006(website). "Monetary Unions." EH.net Economic History Net Online Encyclopedia, at http://www.eh.net/encyclopedia/article/cohen.monetary.unions
Coleman, Andrew. "Economic Integration and Monetary Union." New Zealand Treasury Working Paper 99/6, 1999, p. 32, at http://www.treasury.govt.nz/workingpapers/1999/99-6.asp
Collignon, Stefan, and Daniela Schwarzer. Private Sector Involvement in the EMU: The Power of Ideas. London, UK: Routledge, 2003.
Cooper, Richard. 1984. "A Monetary System for the Future." Foreign Affairs, Fall. 2000. "Toward A Common Currency?" June, presented at the conference on the Future of Monetary Policy and Banking, organized by the IMF and the World Bank, at http://www.worldbank.org/research/interest/confs/upcoming/papersjuly11/cooper.pdf 2005. "Living with Global Imbalances: A Contrarian View." Policy Briefs, No. PB0-5-3, Institute for International Economics, Washington DC, November, at http://www.iie.com/publications/pb/pb05-3.pdf. 2006, "Almost a century of Central Bank Cooperation." Bank for International Settlements Working Papers, No. 198, February, at http://www.bis.org/publ/work198.pdf.
Cordeiro, Jose Luis. "Different Monetary Systems, Costs and Benefits to Whom?" November 2002, p. 3, at http://www.redeconomia.org.ve/seminarios/cordeiro.pdf
Courchene, Thomas J. "A Canadian Perspective on North American Monetary Union." 5 January 2001, p. 23, at http://www.irpp.org/newsroom/archive/2001/0105pape.pdf
Cross, Sam Y. All About The Foreign Exchange Market in the United States. New York, NY: Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 1998.
Cukierman, Alex. "The Limits of Transparency," 25 December 2005, presented at the annual meeting of the American Economics Association, Boston, MA, 6-8 January 2006, at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0107_1015_0903.pdf
Dale, Edwin. "The Pound Experiment--Global Financial System Could Gain If a Small Devaluation Is Successful." The New York Times, 20 November 1967, p. 74.
Davies, Glyn. A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day. rev. ed. Cardiff, UK: University of Wales Press, 1996. See also Davies' family website on "Money" at http://www.ex.ac.uk/~RDavies/arian/money.html
Dawnay, Kit. "A History of Sterling." the online Telegraph at http://portal.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/campaigns/eunion/cesterling.xml
Dean, James W. "Exchange Rate Regimes for the 21st Century: Asia, Europe and the Americas." Prepared for a seminar at Carleton University, October 2003, at http://www.carleton.ca/economics/cep/cep03-10.pdf.
Deardorff, Alan V. "Deardorff's Glossary of International Economics." At http://www-personal.umich.edu/~alandear/glossary/
DeBrun, Xavier, Paul Masson, and Catherine Pattillo. "Monetary Union in West Africa: Who Might Gain, Who Might Lose, and Why?" IMF Working paper 02/226, December 2002, at http://www.brookings.org/views/articles/masson/december2002.htm
De Grauwe, Paul. Economics of Monetary Union. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 6th edition, 2005.
De Grauwe, Paul, and Jacques Melitz, editors. Prospects for Monetary Unions after the Euro. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
De Grauwe, Paul, and Claudia Costa Storti. "Is Monetary Policy in the Eurozone Less Effective than in the US"? CESifo Working Paper No. 1606, November 2005, at http://www.cesifo.de/pls/guestci/download/CESifo%20Working%20Papers%202005/CESifo%20Working%20Papers%20November%202005/cesifo1_wp1606.pdf
De Grauwe, Paul, and Francesco Paolo Mongelli. "Endogeneities of Optimum Currency Areas--What Brings Countries Sharing a Single Currency Together?" European Central Bank Working Paper #468, April 2005, at http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp468.pdf.
De Grauwe, Paul, and Wim Vanhaverbeke. "Is Europe an Optimum Currency Area? Evidence from Regional Data." International Macroeconomics, May 1991, at http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=555
Dehejia, Vivek H. "Currency Options for Emerging Economies: Concepts and Arguments." Revised Version, 28 March 2004, at http://http-server.carleton.ca/~vdehejia/dehejiabratislavarevised.pdf
DeLong, J. Bradford. "Estimating World GDP, One Million B.C. to the Present." at http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/
Denmark National Bank, "Euro Referendum." At http://www.nationalbanken.dk/dnuk/eurohist.nsf/side/Euro_referendum_
de Rato, Rodrigo. "It's Not Just Up to Washington to Correct Global Imbalances." European Affairs, A Publication of the European Institute, Vol. 6 No. 4, 31 December 2005, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/vc/2005/123105a.htm
Detragiache, Enrica, Ashoka Mody and Eisuke Okada. "Exits from Heavily Managed Exchange Rate Regimes." IMF Working Paper WP05/39, February 2005, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2005/wp0539.pdf
Dodge, David. "Monetary Policy and the Exchange Rate in Canada." Remarks by the Governor of the Bank of Canada to the Canada China Business Council, Beijing, 2 June 2005, at http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en/speeches/2005/sp05-8.html
Doe, Lubin Kobla. "Reforming External Tariffs in Central and Western African Countries." IMF Working paper, No. 06/12, 1 January 2006, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.cfm?sk=18617.0
Dominguez, Kathryn, and Freyan Panthaki. "What Defines 'News' in Foreign Exchange Markets?" National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA: November, 2005, at http://www.nber.org/papers/w11769
Dubya Report, The. "Petroeuro Futures." 25 October 2003, at http://www.thedubyareport.com/econiraq.html
Economist, The. 1988. "Get Ready for a World Currency." Vol. 306, 9 January 1988, pp. 9-10. 1998. "One World, One Money." 26 September, 1998. 2006. "Big Mac Index: Fast Food and Strong Currencies." 12 January 2006, at http://www.economist.com/markets/bigmac/index.cfm
Edmunds, John. 2001. The Wealthy World. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. 2003. Brave New Wealthy World: Winning the Struggle for Global Prosperity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Edmunds, John, and John Marthinsen. 2003. Wealth by Association--Global Prosperity Through Market Unification. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003. 2005. "Wealth Creation via Currency Unification & Mama Mia! Here We Go Again!" Presentation at the Second Annual Single Global Currency Conference, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, July 2005, at http://www.singleglobalcurrency.org/documents/WealthCreationviaCurrencyUnificationbyEdmundsandMarthinsenExecutiveSummary050714.doc.
Ehrmann, Michael, and Marcel Fratzscher. "How Should Central Banks Communicate?" European Central Bank Working Paper Series, No. 557, November 2005, at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0107_1015_0904.pdf and at http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp557.pdf.
Eichengreen, Barry. 1991. "Is Europe an Optimum Currency Area?" National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper W3579, January 1991, at http://ssrn.com/abstract=226815 2004. "Financial Stability." Copenhagen Consensus Challenge Paper, April 2004, at http://www.copenhagenconsensus.com/Default.aspx?ID=222. His summary of that same paper is also available at that linked location. 2005. "Can a Rapidly-Growing Export-Oriented Economy Smoothly Exit an Exchange Rate Peg? Lessons for China from Japan's High Growth Era." National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper W11625, September 2005, at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=807614 2006. "The Parallel Currency Approach to Asian Monetary Integration." prepared for the American Economics Association annual meeting, Boston, MA, January 2006, at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0107_1015_1303.pdf
Eichengreen, Barry, and Tamim Bayoumi. "Is Asia an Optimum Currency Area? Can It Become One? Regional, Global and Historical Perspectives on Asian Monetary Relations." Center for International and Development Economics Research, University of California, 1996, at eScholarship Repository, University of California, at http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1033&context=iber/cider
Eichengreen, Barry, and Ricardo Hausmann, editors. Other Peoples' Money--Debt Denomination and Financial Instability in Emerging Market Economies. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Eichengreen, Barry, Ricardo Hausmann, and Ugo Panizza. "The Mystery of Original Sin." August 2003, at http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/eichengr/research/osmysteryaug21-03.pdf.
Einaudi, Luca. "'The Generous Utopia of Yesterday can Become the Practical Achievement of Tomorrow': 1000 Years of Monetary Union in Europe." National Institute of Economic Review, 1 April 2000, at http://www.allbusiness.com/periodicals/article/539455-1.html
Einzig, Paul. The History of Foreign Exchange. London, UK: MacMillan/St. Martin's Press, 1962.
Elekdag, Selim, and Ivan Tchakarov. "Balance Sheets, Exchange Rate Policy, and Welfare." IMF working paper, WP 04/63, April 2004, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2004/wp0463.pdf
Emerson, Michael, Daniel Gros, Alexander Italiener, Jean Pisani-Ferry, and Horst Reichenbach. One Market, One Money--An Evaluation of the Potential Benefits and Costs of Forming an Economic and Monetary Union. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Ercel, Gazi. "To Create a World Currency." (In Turkish,) 7 September 2005, at http://www.sabah.com.tr/2005/07/09/yaz1350-30-104.html.
European Central Bank website. 2006a. "Cash Changeover." At http://www.ecb.int/bc/history/changeover/html/index.en.html. 2006b. "Monetary Policy." At http://www.ecb.int/mopo/html/index.en.html. 2006c. "Treaty on European Union." At http://www.ecb.int/ecb/legal/pdf/maastricht_en.pdf
European Commission to the USA, Delegation of the. "Facts and Figures--More Facts and Figures on the European Union and the United States." At http://www.eurunion.org/profile/EUUSStats.htm
Evans, Martin D. D., and Richard K. Lyons. "Order Flow and Exchange Rate Dynamics." Journal of Political Economy, February 2002, pp. 170-80, at http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/lyons/pubabs.html
Fabozzi, Frank, Editor. Professional Perspectives on Fixed Income Portfolio Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, April, 2002.
Federal Reserve Board. "Reserve Requirements." At http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/reservereq.htm
Federal Reserve Bank of New York, "Reserve Requirements." At http://www.ny.frb.org/aboutthefed/fedpoint/fed45.html
Fischer, Stanley. "Ecuador and the International Monetary Fund." In Currency Unions. Edited by Alberto Alesina and Robert J. Barro, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2001.
Flynn, Sean Masaki. Economics for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, 2005.
Foreign Exchange Committee of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 2004. "Guidelines for Foreign Exchange Trading Activities." July, at http://www.newyorkfed.org/fxc/2004/fxc040713b.pdf 2005a. Annual Report. for October 2004 at http://www.newyorkfed.org/FXC/annualreports/fxcar04.pdf 2005b. Annual Report. for April 2005 at http://www.newyorkfed.org/FXC/annualreports/fxcar04.pdf 2005c. FX Volume Survey. for April 2005 at http://www.newyorkfed.org/fxc/volumesurvey/explanatory_notes.html 2005d. FX Volume Survey. for October 2005 at http://www.newyorkfed.org/fxc/2006/fxc012306.pdf
Foreign Exchange Joint Standing Committee, U.K. "Results of the Semi-Annual FX Turnover Survey in October 2005." 22 January 2006, at http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/markets/forex/fxjsc/fxturnresults060123.pdf
Francis, David R. 1998. "Population Growth Slows, and Elderly Ranks Rise." Christian Science Monitor, 28 October 1998, at http://csmonitor.com/cgi-bin/durableRedirect.pl?/durable/1998/10/28/f-p6s1.shtml. 2004. "The Esperanto of Money." Christian Science Monitor, 12 August 2004, at http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0812/p17s01-stgn.html.
Frankel, Jeffrey A. "No Single Currency Regime is Right for All Countries or at All Times." National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 7338, September 1999, at http://www.nber.org/papers/W7338. The paper is substantially similar to Prof. Frankel's 21 May 1999, testimony before the Committee on Banking and Financial Services at http://ksghome.harvard.edu/~jfrankel/TESTIMNY.HBC.PDF
Frankel, Jeffrey A., and Andrew K. Rose. 1997. "The Endogeneity of the Optimum Currency Area Criteria." National Bureau of Economic Research, Revised draft, 25 September 1997, pp. 1-30, at http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/arose/ocaej.pdf 2001. "An Estimate of the Effect of Currency Unions on Trade and Growth." In Currency Unions. Edited by Alberto Alesina and Robert J. Barro, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2001.
Frankman, Myron. 1990. "A Vision of the New Order." The Trumpeter, Journal of Ecosophy, Volume 7.3, 1990, at http://trumpeter.athabascau.ca/content/v7.3/frankman.html. 2002. "Beyond the Tobin Tax: Global Democracy and a Global Currency." Annals, Volume 581, May 2002, pp. 62-73.
Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1962.
Friedman, Milton, and Robert Mundell, "One World, One Money? A Debate." Policy Options/Options Politiques (May): 10-30, as quoted in Benjamin J. Cohen, The Future of Money, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004, p. 214.
Friedman, Thomas L. The World is Flat. New York, NY: Farrar Straus and Giroux, 2005.
Froot, Kenneth, Michael Kim, and Kenneth Rogoff. "The Law of One Price over 700 Years." IMF Working Paper 174, International Monetary Fund, 2001, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2001/wp01174.pdf.
Funke, Michael, and Jorg Rahn. "Just How Undervalued is the Chinese Renminbi?" The World Economy. Oxford UK, and Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Vol. 28, No. 4, April 2005, pp. 465-89, at http://gulliver.econ.uni-hamburg.de/IWWT/homepage/qmwps/qm405.pdf
Garten, Jeffrey A. "Needed: A Fed for the World." Op-Ed, The New York Times, 23 September 1998.
Geithner, Tim. "Policy Implications of Global Imbalances." For the Financial Imbalances Conference in London, 23 January 2006, at http://www.bis.org/review/r060127a.pdf
Geraats, Petra. 2001. "Why Adopt Transparency? The Publication of Central Bank Forecasts." European Central Bank Working Paper 41, January 2001, at http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp041.pdf 2005a. "Political Pressures and Monetary Mystique." November, 2005, at http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/dae/repec/cam/pdf/cwpe0557.pdf 2005b. "Transparency of Monetary Policy: Theory and Practice." Center for Economic Studies, Munich, Working Paper No. 1597, November, 2005, at http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/faculty/geraats/tpmptp.pdf
Goldfinger, Charles. Chapter 4, "Intangible Economy and Electronic Money," in The Future of Money. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris, 2002, p. 113.
Goldstein, Morris, and Philip Turner. "Currency Mismatches at Center of Financial Crises in Emerging Economies." Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 22 April 2004, at http://www.iie.com/publications/newsreleases/newsrelease.cfm?id=99
Gray, Simon, and Jacob Nell. A New Currency for Iraq. London, UK: Central Banking Publications, LTD, 2005.
Greenspan, Alan. 1999. "Currency Reserves and Debt." Remarks before the World Bank Conference on Recent Trends in Reserves Management, Washington, DC, 29 April, at http://www.federalreserve.gov/BoardDocs/Speeches/1999/19990429.htm. 2005, "International Imbalances." Remarks before the Advancing Enterprise Conference, London, 2 December, at http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2005/200512022/default.htm
Grimes, Arthur. "Regional and Industry Cycles in Australasia: Implications for a Common Currency." Motu Working Paper 05-04, May 2005, at http://www.motu.org.nz/pdf/Motu_Working_Papers/motuwp_05_04.pdf
Grubel, Herbert. "The Case for the Amero--The Economics and Politics of a North American Monetary Union." Critical Issues Bulletin, The Fraser Institute, 1999, at http://www.fraserinstitute.ca/admin/books/files/amero.pdf
Guttmann, Robert. How Credit Money Shapes the Economy, The United States in a Global Economy. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994.
Hammermann, Felix, and Rainer Schweickert. "EU Englargement and Institutional Development: How Far Away Are the EU's Balkan and Black Sea Neighbors?" Kiel Institute for World Economics, Working Paper No. 1261, November 2005, at http://www.uni-kiel.de/ifw/pub/kap/2005/kap1261.pdf
Hausmann, Ricardo, Ugo Panizza and Roberto Rigobon. "The long-run volatility of the real exchange rate." Journal of International Money and Finance, February 2006, pp. 93-124, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V9S-4J0NXXV-1&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2006&_alid=356852073&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5906&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=631778fff61b36513377a32caf6693c5
Hawkins, John, and Paul Masson. "Economic Aspects of Regional Currency Areas and the Use of Foreign Currencies." Bank for International Settlements, May 2003, at http://www.bis.org/publ/bppdf/bispap17c.pdff
Helleiner, Eric. "Dollarization Diplomacy: US Policy Toward Latin America Coming Full Circle?" Trent International Political Economy Centre Working Paper 02/8, Ontario, 2002, at http://www.trentu.ca/tipec/2helleiner8.pdf
Helliwell, John F., and Lawrence l. Schembri. "Borders, Common Currencies, Trade and Welfare: What Can We Learn from the Evidence?" Bank of Canada Review, Spring 2005, pp. 19-35, at http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en/review/spring05/helliwell.pdf
Hericourt, Jerome. "And if One Size Fits All, After All?--A Counterfactual Examination of the ECB--Monetary Policy under Duisenberg Presidency." November 2005 version, at http://ideas.repec.org/p/mse/wpsorb/bla04004a.html
Highsmith, Carol M., and Ted Landhair. The Mount Washington: A Century of Grandeur. Washington, DC: Archetype Press, 2002.
Hulbert, Mark. "The Dollar May Tumble, but It's OK to Shrug." The New York Times, 12 March 2006, p. BU6.
Husain, Aasim. "To Peg or Not to Peg: A Template for Assessing the Nobler." IMF Working Paper 06/54, February 2006, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2006/wp0654.pdf.
Institute for International Economics. "Dollar Overvalued Substantially Against Yen, Modestly Against Euro." Washington, DC, May 1998, at http://www.iie.com/publications/newsreleases/newsrelease.cfm?id=42, relying on the book by Rebecca Driver and Simon Wren-Lewis, Real Exchange Rates for the Year 2000. Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1996, at http://bookstore.iie.com/merchant.mvc?Screen=PROD&Product_Code=19
International Monetary Fund. 1998. IMF Survey, 11 May, p. 146. at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/pdf/051198.pdf. 2000a. IMF Economic Forum "One World, One Currency: Destination or Delusion?" with Paul Masson, Robert Mundell, Maurice Obstfeld, and Alexander Swoboda, 8 November. Transcript is at http://www.imf.org/external/np/tr/2000/tr001108.htm 2000b. IMF Survey, "Economic Forum--Despite Trend Toward Fewer Currencies, a Single World Currency Seems Unlikely in Near Future." 11 December, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/2000/121100.pdf 2001. IMF Survey, "Mundell Calls for a Closer Monetary Union as Step Toward Single World Currency." 5 March, p. 76, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/2001/030501.pdf. 2005a. "Annual Report of the Executive Board for the Financial Year Ended April 30, Appendix, Table 1, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/ar/2005/eng/pdf/file7.pdf 2005b. "A Fact Sheet, September 2005--Gold in the IMF." At http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/gold.htm 2005c. "Strengthening Our Commitment to Low-Income Countries." Rodrigo de Rato, IMF press release, International Monetary Fund, 30 November, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/vc/2005/113005.htm. 2005d. "IMF Establishes an Exogenous Shocks Facility." Public Information Notice No. 05/163, 8 December, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pn/2005/pn05163.htm.Jan 2005e. "Argentina Announces its Intention to Complete Early Repayment of its Entire Outstanding Obligations to the IMF." Press Release, 15 December, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2005/pr05278.htm 2006a. "IMF Executive Board Concludes Article IV Consultation with Germany." Public Information Notice No 06/04, 18 January, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pn/2006/pn0604.htm. 2006b. "IMF Executive Board Concludes Article IV Consultation with Ecuador." Public Information Notice No 06/15, 9 February, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pn/2006/pn0615.htm 2006c. "IMF Executive Board Upholds Sanctions Against Zimbabwe." Press Release, 8 March, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2006/pr0645.htm. 2006d (website). "FACT sheet." At http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/sdr.htm. 2006e (website). "IMF Executive Directors and Voting Power." At http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/memdir/eds.htm 2006f (website). "Articles of Agreement." At http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/aa/index.htm
International Organization for Standards (ISO]. "World Trade Report 2005 Highlights ISO's Key Role." At http://www.iso.org/iso/en/commcentre/pressreleases/2005/Ref965.html
Ize, Alain, and Eduardo Levy Yeyati. "Financial Dollarization." Journal of International Economics, Vol 59, pp. 323-347, 2003, at http://www.utdt.edu/~ely/dolarJIE_final3.PDF
Jacobs, Jan, Gerard Kuper, and Lestano. "Currency Crises in Asia: A Multivariate Logit Approach." Working Paper, Centre for Economic Research (CCS), University of Gronningen, July 2005, at http://ccso.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/root/2005/200506/200506.pdf.
Jackson, Margaret, and Kerry McDonald. "Joint Statement by Co-Chairs of the Australia New Zealand Leadership Forum." 16 May 2004, at http://www.mfat.govt.nz/foreign/regions/australia/leadershipforum/chairstatementmay04.html
Janicki, Hubert P., Thierry Warin, and Phanindra Wunnava. "Endogenous OCA Theory: Using the Gravity Model to Test Mundell's Intuition." Center for European Studies, Working Paper No. 125, 15 June 2005, at http://www.ces.fas.harvard.edu/publications/warin_janicki_wunnava.pdf.
Jayaraman, T. K. 2001. "Prospects for a Currency Union in the South Pacific." 31 December 2001, p. 12, at http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:-tvAkNmvDHIJ:www.fdc.org.au/files/gdnjaya.pdf+jayaraman+currency+prospects&hl=en 2004. "A Single Currency for the Pacific Island Countries: a Stepwise Approach." Asia Pacific Development Journal, June 2004, at http://www.unescap.org/pdd/publications/apdj_11_1/jayaraman.pdf
Jbili, Abdelali, and Vigtali Kramarenko. "Box 1. Classification of Exchange Regimes of the IMF Membership as of April 30, 2003." Choosing Exchange Rate Regimes in the Middle East and North Africa. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund, 2003.
Kaiser, Johannes, and Sebastian Kube. "Currency Speculation Behaviour of Industrial Firms: Evidence from a Two-Country Laboratory Experiment." 9 December 2005, at http://econwpa.wustl.edu/eps/exp/papers/0511/0511005.pdf.
Kaminsky, Graciella, Carmen Reinhart, and Carlos A. Vegh. "The Unholy Trinity of Financial Contagion." Journal of Economic Perspectives, v17(4, Fall), 2003, pp. 51-74, at http://www.nber.org/papers/W10061.
Kasa, Kenneth. "Learning, Large Deviations, and Recurrent Currency Crises." International Economic Review, February 2004, pp. 141-73.
Keynes, John Maynard. 1919. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. At http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/keynes/peace.htm 1923. A Tract on Monetary Reform. Ch. 3. 1941. "Post-War Currency Policy." a British Treasury memorandum dated September 1941, reprinted in Donald Moggridge, editor, The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, Vol 25, Activities, 1940-1944; Shaping the Post-war World, the Clearing Union. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Khan, Mohsin S. "What is Happening to the Petrodollars?" International Monetary Fund, 27 November 2005, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/vc/2005/112705.htm
Kim, Chong Y. "The System of Currency Board: The Experience of Argentina." Working Paper WP2003-006, Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York, at http://www.lemoyne.edu/library/mgmt_wp/wp2003-006.pdf
Kohli, Ulrich. Speech, as posted on the Internet by "Swiss Plus," the organization of the Swiss Bankers Association, November 2003, at http://www.swissplus.ch/newsletter-nov-2003?newsid=5531.
Krieger, Andrew, with Edward Claflin. The Money Bazaar, New York, NY: Times Books, 1992.
Kronberger, Ralf. "A Cost Benefit Analysis of a Monetary Union for MERCOSUR with Particular Emphasis on the Optimum Currency Area Theory?" July 2004, at http://econwpa.wustl.edu:80/eps/mac/papers/0407/0407010.pdf
Krueger, Anne O., Deputy Managing Director, IMF. "At the Service of the Nations: The Role of the IMF in the Modern Global Economy." Speech before the 18th Australasian Finance and Banking Conference, 16 December 2005, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2005/121605.htm.
Krugman, Paul. 1999. "Monomoney Mania." Slate Magazine, 16 April 1999, at http://www.slate.com/id/25210/ 2000. editor, Currency Crises. Chicago, IL: National Bureau of Economic Research, by University of Chicago Press, 2000. Promotional paragraph, at http://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/14111.ctl
Kuroda, Haruhiko. "Single Currency Will Climax Asia's Economic Integration." Shanghai Daily, 7 November 2005, at http://www.shanghaidaily.com/cat/9/86/Opinion.htm
Lambert, Emily. "Funny Money." Forbes Magazine, 14 February 2006, at http://www.forbes.com/2006/02/11/local-currencies-ithaca_cz_el_money06_0214local_print.html.
Leonard, Mark. Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century. New York, NY: Public Affairs, 2005.
Lien, Kathy. "Interest Rate Shuffle." Currency Trader magazine, Chicago, IL: February 2006, pp. 20-24.
Lopez, Jesus Rodriguez, and Hugo Rodriguez Mendizabal. "How tight should one's hands be tied? Fear of floating and the credibility of an exchange rate regime," Universidad Pablo de Olavide Working Paper Series WP 06.03, Sevilla, Espana, 2 March 2006, at http://www.upo.es/serv/bib/wps/econ0603.pdf.
Lopez, Raul. "Currency Trading: Understanding the Basics of Currency Trading." at http://www.articlebiz.com/article/1626-1-currency-trading-understanding-the-basics-of-currency-trading/ and also at http://ezinearticles.com/?Currency-Trading:-Understanding-the-Basics-of-Currency-Trading&id=100502
Lowenstein, Roger. "Exposing the Economics Behind Everyday Behavior," in his column, "Off the Shelf." The New York Times, 18 December 2005, p. BU7.
Lybek, Tonny, and JoAnne Morris. "Central Bank Governance: A Survey of Boards and Management." IMF Working Paper, WP/04/226, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2004/wp04226.pdf.
Magnuson, Robert. "Currency: Why Blocs Can't Work." The New York Times, 22 July 1979, p. F14.
Magud, Nicholas, and Carmen Reinhart. "Capital Controls: An Evaluation." National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 11973, January 2006, at http://papers.nber.org/papers/w11973.
Marongiu, Federico. "Towards a New Set of Leading Indicators of Currency Crisis for Developing Countries: An Application to Argentina." Draft of March 2005, p. 3, at http://econwpa.wustl.edu/eps/pe/papers/0512/0512011.pdf
Marrewijk, Charles. "An Introduction to International Money and Foreign Exchange Markets." University of Adelaide, Australia, October 2004, at http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/if/papers/0410/0410006.pdf
Martin, Jens. "A Compendium of Inequality." Global Policy Forum, October 2005, relying upon the 2005 United Nations Human Development Report, at http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/inequal/2005/10compendium.pdf.
Matsen, Egil, and Ragnar Torvik. "Optional Dutch Disease." 27 April 2004, at http://www.svt.ntnu.no/iso/Ragnar.Torvik/emrtjderev2.pdf
Martin, William McChesney. Toward a World Central Bank? Per Jacobsson Foundation, an organization within the IMF, 1970.
McKinnon, Ronald. 2001. "Optimum Currency Areas and the European Experience." October 2001, at http://www.stanford.edu/~mckinnon/papers/optimumreveur.pdf 2006. "China's Exchange Rate Trap: Japan Redux?" presented at American Economic Association Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, 7 January 2006, at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0107_1015_1302.pdf
Meade, J. E. "The Balance of Payments Problems of a Free Trade Area." Economics Journal, 67, September 1957, pp. 379-96.
Mendizabal, Hugo R. "Monetary Union and the Transaction Cost Savings of a Single Currency." Review of International Economics, Vol. 10, Issue 2, 2002, pp. 263-77, at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-9396.00331
Metcalf, Stephen. "Believing in bullion" (subtitled: "Believing and Believing and Believing in Bullion Currency imbalances? Unsustainable Deficits? Impending Economic Collapse? For Some It's the Golden Age."), The New York Times Magazine, 5 June 2005. p. 39, at http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10D14FB345D0C768CDDAF0894DD404482
Micco, Alejandro, Guillermo Orgonez and Ernesto Stein. "The EMU Effect on Trade: What's in it for the UK?" as Chapter 7 of Paul De Grauwe and Jacques Melitz, editors, Prospects for Monetary Unions after the Euro. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005, p. 4, at http://www.eea-esem.com/papers/eea-esem/2003/2397/UK-EMU%20July14b.pdf
Milanovic, Branko. Worlds Apart. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005.
Mill, John Stuart. Principles of Political Economy with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy. 7th Edition, with introduction by W.J. Ashley, 1909, London. First edition published 1848, full text at http://www.econlib.org/library/Mill/mlP36.html
Mkenda, Beatrice K. "Is East Africa an Optimum Currency Area?" Working Papers in Economics, Goteborg University, Number 41, April 2001, at http://www.handels.gu.se/epc/data/html/pp./PDF/gunwpe0041.pdf
Moore, Basil. 2004. "A Global Currency for a Global Economy." Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Summer, pp. 631-53, at http://mesharpe.metapress.com/(ncxp2wq53kjk2brdyrnbx245)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,7,13;journal,7,14;linkingpublicationresults,1:109348,1 2006. Shaking the Invisible Hand: Complexity, Endogenous Money and Exogenous Interest Rates. London, UK: Palgrave MacMillan.
Moshirian, Fariborz. "New International Financial Architecture." presented at First Single Global Currency Conference, Bretton Woods, July 2004, at http://www.singleglobalcurrency.org/documents/NewinternationalfinancialarchitecturebyFariborzMoshirian.doc. Also published in the Journal of Multinational Financial Management, October-December 2002, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VGV-460DNXY-2&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2002&_alid=347596192&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=6048&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=12dab61202c69def4dee840d42880679
Mundell, Robert. 1961. "A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas." American Economic Review, May, pp. 657-65. Article is also contained in Mundell's textbook, International Economics, as chapter 12, pp. 177-86, and online at http://www.columbia.edu/~ram15/ie/ie-12.html. 1963. "Capital Mobility and Stablilization Policy under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates." Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, Vol. 29, November, pp. 475-85. 1968, "Plan for a World Currency." prepared for hearings on 9 September 1968 before the Subcommittee on International Exchange and Payments of the Joint Economic Committee, being a paper prepared for a conference at Ditchley Park, England, 10-13 September, 1968, pp. 14-28 of the Committee's report entitled, "Next Steps In International Monetary Reform." 1973. "A Plan for a European Currency" and "Uncommon Arguments for Common Currencies." both in H.G. Johnson and A.K. Swoboda, The Economics of Common Currencies. London, UK: Allen and Unwin, pp. 143-72. Citation from Ronald McKinnon's, "Optimum Currency Areas and the European Experience." 16 October 2001, at http://www.stanford.edu/~mckinnon/papers/optimumreveur.pdf 2000a. "Currency Areas, Exchange Rate Systems and International Monetary Reform." Paper delivered at Buenos Aires on 17 April, at http://www.columbia.edu/~ram15/cema2000.html 2000b. "Exchange Rates, Currency Areas and the International Financial Architecture." Remarks delivered at an IMF panel, 22 September, Prague, Czech Republic at http://www.usagold.com/gildedopinion/mundellprague.html. 2002a. "Monetary Unions and the Problem of Sovereignty." in The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 579, No. 1, 123-152; and Columbia University, Discussion Paper Series #0102-06, January, at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/economics/discpapr/DP0102-06.pdf 2002b. "Currency Areas, Volatility and Intervention." Columbia University, Discussion Paper Series #0102-09, January, at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/economics/discpapr/DP0102-09.pdf. 2005. "The Case for a World Currency." Journal of Policy Modeling, June, pp. 465-75, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V82-4G5BF09-1/2/0a981dfd39b6bb0ab8800e29fb10f7b1 2006(website). "The Birth of Coinage." At http://www.columbia.edu/cu/economics/discpapr/DP0102-08.pdf 2006(website). "Gold," on his website at http://www.robertmundell.net/Menu/Main.asp?Type=5&Cat=10&ThemeName=Gold 2006(website). "The Works of Robert A. Mundell--World Currency." At http://www.robertmundell.net/Menu/Main.asp?Type=5&Cat=09&ThemeName=World%20Currency
Mundell, Robert, Paul A. Zak, and Derek Schaeffer, editors. International Monetary Policy after the Euro. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005.
Murray, John. "Why Canada Needs a Flexible Exchange Rate." July 1999, for a conference at Western Washington University, 30 April 1999, at http://epe.lacbac.gc.ca/100/200/301/bankofcanada/working_papers-ef/1999/99-12/wp99-12.pdf
Nissen, William. "The Long and Tangled History of the CFTC's Jurisdiction in Foreign Exchange." Futures Industry Magazine, Futures Industry Association, at http://www.futuresindustry.org/fimagazi-1929.asp?a=962
Nitsch, Volker. "Have a Break, Have a . . . National Currency: When Do Monetary Unions Fall Apart." Chapter 12, in Paul De Grauwe and Jacques Melitz, editors, Prospects for Monetary Unions after the Euro. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.
Nye, Joseph. "Europe's Soft Power." in Globalist, 3 May 2004, at http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/analysis/2004/0503softpower.htm.
Oberlechner, Thomas. "Perceptions of Successful Traders by Foreign Exchange Professionals." Journal of Behavioral Finance, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 23-31, at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1207/s15427579jpfm0501_3?cookieSet=1
Obstfeld, Maurice, and Kenneth Rogoff. 2000. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?" Center for International and Development Economics Research, Berkeley, p. 34, at http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=iber/cider 2001. "Do We Really Need a New Global Monetary Compact?" in Currency Unions, Edited by Alberto Alesina and Robert J. Barro. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2001, p. 81. 2004. "The Unsustainable US Current Account Position Revisited*." First draft 14 October 2004, and this draft 30 November 2005. *"This chapter is a revised version of National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 10869, November, 2004." At http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/rogoff/papers/Unsustainable_Nov_2005.pdf.
Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, The Future of Money, Paris, FR: 2002.
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense, Rights of Man, and Other Essential Writings of Thomas Paine. New York, NY: New American Library, 2003.
Parsley, David, and Shang-Jim Wei. "A Prism Into the PPP Puzzles: The Microfoundations of Big Mac Real Exchange Rates." December 2005 at http://www2.owen.vanderbilt.edu/david.parsley/research.htm.
Pesaran, M. Hashem L., Vanessa Smith and Ron P. Smith. "What if the UK had joined the Euro in 1999? An Empirical Evaluation Using a Global VAR." CESifo Working Paper 1477, June 2005, at http://www.cesifo.de/pls/guestci/download/CESifo%20Working%20Papers%202005/CESifo%20Working%20Papers%20June%202005/cesifo1_wp1477.pdf
Peterson, Peter G. "Riding for a Fall." Foreign Affairs, September/October 2004, at http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20040901faessay83510/peter-g-peterson/riding-for-a-fall.html?mode=print
Plato. "Allegory of the Cave." The Republic, translated by Benjamin Jowett, at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_1/plato.html
Plocker, Sever. Summary of speech, "Dollars for Peace: Monetary Foundation of the Two-State Solution." At a Saban Policy Center Luncheon, 30 June 2005, Brookings Institution, at http://www.brookings.edu/fp/saban/events/20050630.htm.
Posen, Adam S., Editor. The Euro at Five: Ready for a Global Role? Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2005.
Ragan, Christopher. "The Exchange Rate and Canadian Inflation Targeting." Bank of Canada, November 2005, at http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en/res/wp/2005/wp05-34.pdf
Raisler, Kenneth. "Giving Customers Trading Advice: Implications of the de Kwiatkowski Decision." Futures Industry Magazine, Futures Industry Association, 2003, at http://www.futuresindustry.org/fimagazi-1929.asp?a=998
Rajan, Raghuram. 2000. "Counterbalance: The Euro in Asia." Harvard Asia Pacific Review, Winter, at http://hcs.harvard.edu/~hapr/winter00_millenium/Euro.html 2006. "Financial System Reform and Global Current Account Imbalances." Remarks to the American Economic Association, 8 January 2006, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2006/010806.htm.
Ramasamy, Bala, and Matthew C.H. Yeung. "The Causality Between Stock Returns and Exchange Rates: Revisited." Australian Economic Papers, Issue 2, June 2005, p. 162, at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-8454.2005.00257.x
Ramayandi, Arief. "ASEAN Monetary Cooperation: Issues and Prospects." Pacific Economic Paper No. 349, Australia-Japan Research Centre, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Management, 2005, p. 15, at http://www.eaber.org/intranet/documents/39/636/AJRC_Ramayandi_05.pdf
Ramcharran, Harri. "Sensitivity of Foreign Exchange Trading Income to Exchange Rate Changes: A Study of Large U.S. Banks." Multinational Business Review, Spring 2000, at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3674/is_20004/ai_n8896805
Rivoli, Pietra. The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy: An Economist Examines the Markets, Power and Politics of World Trade. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Rodrik, Dani. "The Social Cost of Foreign Exchange Reserves." National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 11952, January 2006, at http://papers.nber.org/papers/W11952
Rogers, John H. "Monetary Union, Price Level Convergence, and Inflation: How Close is Europe to the United States?" Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, International Finance Discussion Paper 740, October 2002, at http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/ifdp/2002/740/default.htm.
Rogoff, Kenneth. "On Why Not a Global Currency." Presented to the American Economic Association Meeting on "Exchange Rates and Choice of Monetary Regimes," and published in the American Economic Review, Vol. 91(2), 2001, 8 January 2001, pp. 243-47 at http://www.economics.harvard.edu/%7Ekrogoff/AER-May01.pdf.
Rose, Andrew K. 2001a. "EMU and Swedish Trade." Confederation of Swedish Enterprise, at http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/arose/SEMUdec.pdf. 2001b. "What should Academics tell Policy-makers about Monetary Union? Discussion of Coleman and Wyplosz." 28 July, at http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/arose/RBADisc.pdf 2002. "The effect of Common Currencies on International Trade: Where do we Stand?" draft, 7 August, at http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/arose/MASOP02.pdf
Rose, Andrew K., and T. D. Stanley. "A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Common Currencies on International Trade." Journal of Economic Surveys, July 2005, at http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/arose/MetaR.pdf
Rose, Andrew K., and Eric van Wincoop. "National Money as a Barrier to International Trade: The Real Case for Currency Union." Presented at American Economic Association Meeting on "Currency Unions" on 6 January 2001, at http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/arose/RvWr.pdf
Rosenstreich, Peter. FOREX Revolution--An Insider's Guide to the Real World of Foreign Exchange Trading. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2005.
Roubini, Nouriel. "A Single Global Currency? Not Any Time Soon Nor in the Long Run in Which We Are All Dead." blog at http://www.rgemonitor.com/blog/roubini/91155/.
Roux, Hugo Narrillos. "Divisa Unica y Establidad Economica Mundial." translated as "Single Currency and Worldwide Economic Stability." April 2004, Ph.D. thesis in Spanish, with abstract in English at http://www.singleglobalcurrency.org/academics_and_economists.html.
Salvatore, Dominick. "The Euro-Dollar Exchange Rate Defies Prediction." Journal of Policy Modeling, June 2005, pp. 455-64, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V82-4G5YSNX-2/2/8bd46e0652074df47caa9c04052a1e2d
Salvatore, Dominick, James W. Dean and Thomas D. Willett, editors. The Dollarization Debate. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Sanchez, Marcelo. 2005a. "The Link Between Interest Rates and Exchange Rates--Do Contractionary Depreciations Make a Difference?" European Central Bank, Working Paper Series, No. 548, November, at http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp548.pdf 2005b. "Is Time Ripe for a Currency Union in Emerging East Asia? The Role of Monetary Stabilization" European Central Bank Working Paper 567, December, at http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp567.pdf
Sandler, Todd. Global Collective Action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 269.
Saxena, Sweta Chaman. "Can South Asia Adopt a Common Currency?" Journal of Asian Economics, August 2005, pp. 635-62, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W53-4GNTFR7-1&_coverDate=08/31/2005&_alid=333175128&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=6559&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=79ff37ee9475f67b178d416a1277d9e5, and at http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/if/papers/0508/0508001.pdf
Scaruffi, Gasparo. L'Alitinonfo. Reggio Emilia, 1582, as cited by Robert Mundell, at IMF Economic Forum "One World, One Currency: Destination or Delusion?" 8 November 2000, with Alexander Swoboda, Maurice Obstfeld and Paul Masson, at http://www.imf.org/external/np/tr/2000/tr001108.htm
Schaling, Eric. "Capital Controls, Two-Tiered Exchange Rate Systems and Exchange Rate Policy: The South African Experience." at http://greywww.kub.nl:2080/greyfiles/center/2005/doc/110.pdf
Scitovsky, Tibor. Economic Theory and Western European Integration. London, UK: Allen and Unwin, 1958 at http://www.columbia.edu/~ram15/ie/ie-12.html
Schmid, John. "G-7 Drafts Gold-Sale Plan To Cut Poor Nations' Debt." International Herald Tribune, 14 June 1999, as posted on website of Global Policy Forum, at http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/bwi-wto/dbtpkg99.htm
Schnabl, Gunther. "The Russian Currency Basket, The Rising Role of the Euro for Russia's Exchange Rate Policies." 12 December 2005, at http://econwpa.wustl.edu/eps/if/papers/0512/0512005.pdf
Schuler, Kurt, and Robert Stein. "The International Monetary Stability Act: An Analysis--Paper for North-South Institute Conference "To Dollarize or Not to Dollarize?" in Ottowa, 5 October 2000, at http://users.erols.com/kurrency/ottawa3.htm.
Shah, Anup. "Causes of Poverty: Poverty Facts and Stats." at http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Facts.asp.
Shailor, Barbara, AFL-CIO, United States. "Internationalism for Working People," OECD Observer, August 2003, at http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/893/Internationalism_for_working_people.html.
Shimpalee, Pattama, and Janice Boucher Breuer. "Currency Crises and Institutions." Journal of International Money and Finance, February 2006, pp. 125-45, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V9S-4HRDXTS-2&_coverDate=02%2F28%2F2006&_alid=356854987&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=5906&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=651aabb4e9f607033f925e64c4f1b423
Sibert, Anne C. "Is Central Bank Transparency Desirable?" 14 December 2005, presented at the Annual meeting of the American Economics Association, Boston, MA, 6-8 January, 2006, at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2006/0107_1015_0902.pdf
Simmons, Beth A. "The future of central bank cooperation." Bank for International Settlements Working Papers, No. 200, February, 2006, at http://www.bis.org/publ/work200.pdf.
Singer, Peter. One World. London, UK, and New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.
Singh, Kavaljit. Taming Global Financial Flows. New York, NY: Zed Books, 2000.
Sittenfeld, Curtis. Prep. New York, NY: Random House, 2005.
Snyder, Mark. "New Opportunities and Risks in Foreign Exchange: The Role of the Foreign Exchange Committee." Speech presented at the Profit & Loss Forex Network Conference, Chicago, 20 September 2005, at http://www.newyorkfed.org/fxc/2005/fxc051117.pdf
Soros, George. The Alchemy of Finance. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.
Sorsa, Piritta. "Macroeconomic Challenges with EU Accession in Southeastern Europe: An Overview," IMF Working paper 06/40, February 2006, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2006/wp0640.pdf
Stakelbeck, Frederick W., Jr. "Foreign Currency Conversion Fees and the Credit Card Industry." in SRC Insights, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Third Quarter 2005, at http://www.philadelphiafed.org/src/srcinsights/srcinsights/q3si4_05.html
Stead, Andrew. "ECB Raises Interest Rates, Says No More Hikes for Now." ABCmoney.co.UK, 2 December 2005, at http://www.abcmoney.co.uk/news/0220051461.htm
Steil, Benn and Robert E. Litan, Financial Statecraft. London, UK, and New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006.
Stein, Ernesto, Jorge Streb, and Piero Ghezzi. "Real Exchange Cycles Around Elections." Vol 17, Issue 3, Economics and Politics, November 2005, p. 297, at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=856728.
Stewart, Potter, Associate Justice. Concurring opinion in U.S. Supreme Court case, Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184 (1964), online at http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=378&invol=184.
Stone, Mark R., and Ashok J. Bhundia. "A New Taxonomy of Monetary Regimes." IMF Working Paper WP/04/191, October 2004, at http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2004/wp04191.pdf
Sturm, Michael, and Nikolaus Siegfried. "Regional Monetary Integration in the Member States of the Gulf Cooperation Council." European Central Bank, June, 2005, at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=752091
Sturzenegger, Federico, and Eduardo Levy Yeyati. "De Facto Classification of Exchange Rate Regimes" (xls file). at http://www.utdt.edu/~ely/papers.html This is a de facto Excel spreadsheet classification of exchange rate regimes covering 183 countries over the period 1974-2000. The methodology is described in detail in "A de facto Classification of Exchange Rate Regimes: A Methodological Note," undated, at http://www.utdt.edu/~ely/AppendixAER.pdf
Tamames, Ramon. "Monetary Siimplification Euro/Dollar: Towards a Global Currency." Instituto Europeo De Estudos Economicos, November 2004, at http://esc.clubofrome.org/archive/articles/dl_tamames1.pdf
Taylor, Bryan. "The Eurodollar." 1998, at http://www.globalfinancialdata.com/articles/euro.htm.
Thiessen, Gordon. "Why a Floating Exchange Rate Regime Makes Sense for Canada." 4 December 2000, at http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en/speeches/2000/sp00-7.html
Thurow, Lester. Fortune Favors the Bold. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2003.
Tobin, James. "A Proposal for Monetary Reform." Eastern Economic Journal, July/October 1978, pp. 153-59, at http://www.globalpolicy.org/socecon/glotax/currtax/original.htm.
Truman, Edwin. Policy Analysis in International Economics 77--A Strategy for IMF Reform," Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2006.
United Kingdom Treasury, "UK membership of the single currency: An assessment of the five economic tests EXECUTIVE SUMMARY." Her Majesty's Treasury, June 2003, at http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk./media/FFC/8C/EMU03_exec_126.pdf
United Nations. 1948. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights," Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948, at http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html. 2006(website). "Introduction: The SNA as a System." United Nations Statistics Division, United Nations, at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/sna1993/tocLev8.asp?L1=1&L2=1.
U.S. Dept. of Energy. "Non-OPEC Fact Sheet--Top World Oil Consumers, 2004." At http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/topworldtables3_4.html
U.S. Department of State, "2005 Investment Climate Statement--El Salvador." At http://www.state.gov/e/eb/ifd/2005/43026.htm
U.S. Dept. of the Treasury, "Report to Congress on International Economic and Exchange Rate Policies, May 2005." At http://www.treas.gov/press/releases/reports/js2448_report.pdf
Vaknin, Sam. "The History of previous Currency Unions." At http://samvak.tripod.com/nm032.html
Valderrama, Diego. "FRBSF Economic Letter: What If Foreign Governments Diversified Their Reserves?" Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, 29 July 2005, at http://www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2005/el2005-17.html
Van Parijs, Philippe. "Does basic income make sense as a worldwide project?" at the IXth Congress of the Basic Income European Network, International Labour Organization, Geneva, 14 September 2002, at http://www.etes.ucl.ac.be/bienbackup/conference2002/papers/vanparijsphilippe.doc.
von Furstenberg, George. 2000. "A Case Against U.S. Dollarization." Challenge 43, no. 4, July, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1093/is_4_43/ai_64458676. 2001. "One Region, One Money: The Potential Contribution of Currency Consolidation to Financial Stability in the Developing World." Pre-Summit G8 Academic Symposium, at http://www.associazioneguidocarli.org/papers/vonfurst.pdf 2002. "Should Small Countries Join an Existing Monetary Union?" Journal of Economic Integration, March, pp. 104-32, and at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=472262 2006. "Mexico Versus Canada: Stability Benefits from Making Common Currency with USD?" The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, March, pp. 65-78, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W5T-4HSXVCN-1&_coverDate=03%2F31%2F2006&_alid=376363228&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_qd=1&_cdi=6579&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=79a531d2b7f58f38bcd5e0bf410bef09.
Warburton, Brian. "The Case for a Single Global Currency." AmCham Magazine, American Chamber of Commerce, Belgium, No. 514, 1996, p. 28.
Watanabe, Toshiaki, and Kimie Harada. "Effects of the Bank of Japan's Intervention on Yen/Dollar Exchange Rate Volatility," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, March 2006, pp. 99-111, at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WMC-4DVBGXH-1/2/41970dd0a1129ac691062228b2d11e62.
Wikipedia. "Global Currency." At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_currency.
Willett, Thomas. 1999. "The OCA Approach to Exchange Rate Regimes: A Perspective on Recent Developments." Claremont Colleges, Working paper 2001-04, April 1999, at http://econ.claremontmckenna.edu/papers/2001-04.pdf 2004. "The Political Economy of Exchange Rate Regimes and Currency Crises." March, background paper for the Claremont Conference on the Political Economy of Exchange Rates, 1 and 2 April, at http://www.cgu.edu/include/spe_Willett5.pdf
Williams, Marion. "Foreign Exchange Reserves: How Much is Enough?" Speech delivered at the Central Bank of the Bahamas, 2 November 2005, at http://www.centralbank.org.bb/Publications/Adlith_Brown_Lec.pdf, and at http://www.bis.org/review/r060123c.pdf
Williamson, John. "Did the Washington Consensus Fail?" Outline of speech at the Center for Strategic & International Studies, Washington, DC, November 6, 2002, Institute for International Economics, at http://www.iie.com/publications/papers/paper.cfm?ResearchID=488.
Wolf, Martin. "We Need a Global Currency." Financial Times, 3 August 2004, at http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco338/040Trade-debt/Currency/040804global.txt.
World Economic Forum. 2001. Annual Meeting, with contributors: Martin Feldstein, Jeffrey Frankel