Herrmann, Michael and Svarin, David (2009): Environmental pressures and rural-urban migration: The case of Bangladesh.
Download (129kB) | Preview
Bangladesh, like other least developed countries (LDC), has a large rural population and agricultural labor force. At the turn of the Millennium 75 percent of the LDCs’ population still lived in rural areas and 71 percent of the LDCs’ labor force was involved in agriculture. Yet, even the least developed countries are affected by rapidly accelerating rural-to-urban migration. This decade, 2001-2010, is the first ever in which the urban population grows faster than the rural population in the LDCs. And this change is also associated with a historic employment transition, where the agricultural sector gradually loses importance.
Both the population and the employment transition that can be observed for the group of least develops countries, are largely attributable to LDC's in Asia, and in particular Bangladesh. The very large rural-urban migration in Bangladesh, in comparison with other least developed countries, is attributable to relatively strong push factors on the one hand, and strong pull factors on the other. The principle factor that encourages people to leave their homes in the country side is the frequent recurrence of natural disasters, which undermine agricultural development and cause food crisis. By contrast, the principle factor that attracts people to urban centers is the expansion of the non-agricultural sectors, industry and services, which promises jobs and higher household incomes.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Environmental pressures and rural-urban migration: The case of Bangladesh|
|Keywords:||Bangladesh; climate change; rural-urban migration; agricultural development; urban planning; dual-dual model; employment; poverty|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O18 - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis ; Housing ; Infrastructure
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs > J31 - Wage Level and Structure ; Wage Differentials
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R0 - General
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor > J21 - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J6 - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers > J61 - Geographic Labor Mobility ; Immigrant Workers
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q54 - Climate ; Natural Disasters and Their Management ; Global Warming
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
|Depositing User:||Michael Herrmann|
|Date Deposited:||20. Jan 2009 18:56|
|Last Modified:||11. Feb 2013 18:22|
Black, R., Kniveton, D., Skeldon, R., Coppard, D., Murata, A. and K. Schmidt-Verkerk (2008). Demographics and Climate Change: Future Trends and their Policy Implications for Migration. T-27 Working Paper, Development Research Centre. University of Sussex, Brighton.
Boano, C., Zetter, R. and T. Morris (2007). Environmentally Displaced People: Understanding the Linkages between Environmental Change, Livelihoods and Forced Migration. Policy Briefing, Refugee Studies Centre. University of Oxford, Oxford.
Del Ninno, C., Dorosh, P., Smith, L., and D. K. Roy (2001). The 1998 floods in Bangladesh: disaster impact, household coping strategies and response. IFPRI Research Report 122. IFPRI, Washington D.C.
Fei, J. and G. Ranis (1964). Development of the labor surplus economy, Homewood, IL, Irwin.
Gore, C.G. and M. Herrmann (2008a). "Trade and Investment in LDCs" in UNDP (ed.). Making Globalization Work for Least Developed Countries, New York.
Gore, C.G. and M. Herrmann (2008b): "Technology and Innovation in LDCs" in UNDP (ed.). Making Globalization Work for Least Developed Countries, New York.
Harris, J.R. and M.P. Todaro (1970). "Unemployment and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis", The American Economic Review, Vol. 60 (1), 126-142.
Herrmann, M. (2006). "Structural change in labor-surplus economies: Evidence from least developed countries", Background Report to the Least Developed Countries Report 2006, UNCTAD, Geneva.
Herrmann, M. (2007). "Agricultural support measures of advanced countries and food insecurity in developed countries: Economic linkages and policy responses", in Guha-Khasnobis, B., S.S. Acharya and B. Davis (eds.). Food security: Indicators, measurement, and the impact of trade openness, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Herrmann, M. and H.A. Khan (2008). "Rapid urbanization, employment crisis and poverty in African LDCs: A new development strategy and aid policy", Geneva, mimeo.
IPCC (2001). Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. McCarthy, J.J., Canziani, O.F., Leary, N.A., Dokken, D.J. and K.S. White (eds.). Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and C.E. Hanson (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
IPCC (2007b). Asia. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cruz, R.V., Harasawa, H., Lal, M., Wu, S., Anokhin, Y., Punsalmaa, B., Honda, Y., Jafari, M., Li, C. and N. H. Ninh. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and Hanson, C.E., (eds.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 469-506.
Lewis, W.A. (1954). "Economic development with unlimited supplies of labor", The Manchester School.
Khan, H.A. and E. Thorbecke (1988). Macroeconomic effects and diffusion of alternative technologies within a social accounting matrix framework: The case of Indonesia, Gower Publication, Co., Aldershot.
Mirza, M.M.Q. (2002). "Global Warming and Changes in the Probability of Occurrence of Floods in Bangladesh and Implications." Global Environmental Change, Vol. 12 (2), 127-138.
MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forest) (2008). Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2008. Ministry of Environment and Forests. Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka.
MoEF (2005). Bangladesh National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). Ministry of Environment and Forests.Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka.
Myers, N. (1993). "Environmental Refugees in a Globally Warmed World." Bioscience, Vol. 43 (11), 752-761.
Piguet, E. (2008). Climate change and forced migration. Research Paper No. 153. UNHCR Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, Geneva.
Rahman, A., Alam M., Alam, S.S., Uzzaman, M.R., Rashid, M. and G. Rabbani (2007). "Risks, Vulnerability and Adaptation in Bangladesh." UNDP Human Development Report 2007/2008 Background Paper. UNDP, New York.
Rahman, R.I. and K.M.N. Islam (2003). Employment Poverty Linkages: Bangladesh. Issue in Employment and Poverty Discussions Paper 10. ILO, Geneva.
Shamsuhoda, Md. (ed.) (2007). Sea Level Rise Causes: Environmental Refugee in Bangladesh. Campaign Brief 5. Coast Trust and Equity and Justice Working Group, Dhaka.
Stifel, D. and E. Thorbecke (2003). "A dual-dual CGE model for a stylized Archetype African economy", Journal of Policy Modelling, Vol. 25 (3), 207-235.
Todaro, M.P. (1969). "A Model of Labor Migration and Urban Unemployment in Less Developed Countries", The American Economic Review, Vol. 59 (1), 138-148.
UNCTAD (2006). The Least Developed Countries Report 2006: Developing Productive Capacities, New York and Geneva.
UNCTAD (2007). The Least Developed Countries Reports 2007: Knowledge, Technological Learning and Innovation for Development, New York and Geneva.
UNCTAD (2008a). The Least Developed Countries Report 2008: Growth, Poverty and the Terms of Development Partnership, New York and Geneva.
UNCTAD (2008b). The Trade and Development Reports 2008: Commodity Prices, Capital Flows and the Financing of Investment, New York and Geneva.
UNDP (2007). Human Development Report 2007/2008. Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World. UNDP, New York.
UN-Habitat (2008). State of the World's Cities 2008/2009. Case Study: Dhaka's extreme vulnerability to climate change. UN-Habitat Feature. United Nations Human Settlement Programme, Nairobi.