Funk, Matt (2008): On the Problem of the Island of Earth: Introducing a Universal Theory of Value in an Open Letter to The President of the United States.
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This paper introduces a unified theory of value.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||On the Problem of the Island of Earth: Introducing a Universal Theory of Value in an Open Letter to The President of the United States|
|Keywords:||theory of value; evolutionary stable solution; economic power; military power; national security; global threat mitigation; extinction; human evolution; ideological environmentalism; the problem of induction; karl popper; F.A. von Hayek; austrian economics|
|Subjects:||B - History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches > B4 - Economic Methodology > B40 - General
A - General Economics and Teaching > A1 - General Economics > A12 - Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z10 - General
|Depositing User:||Matt Funk|
|Date Deposited:||06. Apr 2009 08:31|
|Last Modified:||27. Apr 2015 22:51|
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Frey, B. S. (2002). Publishing as Prostitution? Choosing Between One‘s Own Ideas and Academic Failure. Published in: Public Choice Vol. 116, 2003, 205-223: Institut für Empirische Wirtschaftsforschung, Universität Zürich. Abstract: Survival in academia depends on publications in refereed journals. Authors only get their papers accepted if they intellectually prostitute themselves by slavishly following the demands made by anonymous referees without property rights on the journals they advise. Intellectual prostitution is neither beneficial to suppliers nor consumers. But it is avoidable. The editor (with property rights on the journal) should make the basic decision of whether a paper is worth publishing or not. The referees only give suggestions on how to improve the paper. The author may disregard this advice. This reduces intellectual prostitution and produces more original publications.
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- - - . (2006d). Personal Correspondence. -----Original Message----- From: Matt Funk <Mfunk@upei.ca> To: Doherty, Peter Sent: Sun Oct 28 20:44:21 2007 Subject: Thomas Kuhn & Karl Popper
Greetings Dr Doherty....I am researching a theory that the rejection of Karl Popper's logic and methods and general acceptance (in a popular sense) of Thomas Kuhn's logic and methods have been detrimental to science, especially social sciences such as economics. Nearly a dozen Nobel Laureates have thanked Popper and acknowledged his great influence upon their work: most notably, of course, is F.A. von Hayek's Sveriges Riksbank Prize Lecture and, perhaps the most notable example in your field may be revealed in Eccles' Nobel biography. I have only been able to discover one Nobel Laureate who acknowledged Kuhn's influence and, curiously, this noble individual (whom of course is you!) acknowledged both Popper and Kuhn: "I was influenced early on by reading Arthur Koestler and Edward de Bono, and more recently by the writings of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn." So, naturally, I'm very curious to know if, after nearly a decade, the balance of this influence or your opinions regarding these two philosophers of science has changed? I thank you very much for your time and consideration regarding this matter, as I am inclined to believe the long-term prospects of human survival may hang in the balance to the ultimate answer to this debate. Any words of wisdom you are able to offer on this topic would be greatly appreciated. Sincerely...Matt Funk --- From:Doherty, Peter To:Mfunk@upei.ca Date:10/28/07 11:58 pm Subject: Re: Thomas Kuhn & Karl Popper A long time since I've read either. Popper's views re falsification of a null hypothesis seem correct to me. Much of the world's worst science is done by people who are determined to prove a point. Kuhn's idea of the paradigm shift is spot on.
Peter C. Doherty, Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 North Lauderdale, Memphis TN 38105 Tel 901-495-3470 Fax 901-495-3107 also at: email@example.com
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Photo: A wild, native bee (Svastra obliqua expurgata) forages on a sunflower. Honey bees that interact with wild, native bees are up to five times more efficient in pollinating sunflowers. Protecting wild bees may help buffer the human food supply from reduced pollination resulting from honey bee shortages. Conservation measures for wild bees include maintaining and restoring natural habitats and adopting bee-friendly farming practices. Image courtesy of Sarah S. Greenleaf.
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Jarvis, D. I., Brown, A. H. D., Cuong, P. H., Collado-Panduro, L., Latournerie- Moreno, L., Gyawali S., Tanto, T., Sawadogo, M., Mar, Istvan., Sadiki, M., Thi-Ngoc Hue, N., Arias-Reyes, L., Bajracharya, D. J., Castillo, F., Rijal, D., Belqadi, L., Rana, R., Saidi, S., Ouedraogo, J., Zangre, R., Rhrib, K., Chavez, J. L., Schoen, D., Sthapit, B., De Santis, P., Fadda, C., & Hodgkin, T. (2008). A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities. “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America”. PNAS. Published online on March 24, 2008, 10.1073/pnas. 0800607105 PNAS | April 8, 2008 | vol. 105 | no. 14 | 5326-5331. Communicated by Hans R. Herren, Millennium Institute, Arlington, VA, January 26, 2008 (received for review July 18, 2007). Abstract: Varietal data from 27 crop species from five continents were drawn together to determine overall trends in crop varietal diversity on farm. Measurements of richness, evenness, and divergence showed that considerable crop genetic diversity continues to be maintained on farm, in the form of traditional crop varieties. Major staples had higher richness and evenness than nonstaples. Variety richness for clonal species was much higher than that of other breeding systems. A close linear relationship between traditional variety richness and evenness (both transformed), empirically derived from data spanning a wide range of crops and countries, was found both at household and community levels. Fitting a neutral "function" to traditional variety diversity relationships, comparable to a species abundance distribution of "neutral ecology," provided a benchmark to assess the standing diversity on farm. In some cases, high dominance occurred, with much of the variety richness held at low frequencies. This suggested that diversity may be maintained as an insurance to meet future environmental changes or social and economic needs. In other cases, a more even frequency distribution of varieties was found, possibly implying that farmers are selecting varieties to service a diversity of current needs and purposes. Divergence estimates, measured as the proportion of community evenness displayed among farmers, underscore the importance of a large number of small farms adopting distinctly diverse varietal strategies as a major force that maintains crop genetic diversity on farm. Jarvie, I. C., & Pralong, S. (1999). Popper's Open society after fifty years. London ; New York: Routledge. 1. In intellectual circles Popper was very much admired. But because The Open Society and Its Enemies was hostile to so much academic pretension it was treated less than respectfully by those in the various specialties upon whose turf it trod (p 6). 2. In 1950, Popper went to Harvard to deliver the prestigious William James lectures. During his time in the States he appears to have given a talk at the University of Chicago, where Strauss taught. Strauss told Voegelin that the talk “was very bad,” “the most washed-out, lifeless positivism” (Emberly and Cooper 1993: 67), and inquired of his opinion of Popper. Voegelin replied with a vicious letter. He reports having reluctantly read Popper because so many people insist his Open Society is a masterpiece. His judgment is that the book is “impudent, dilettantish crap. Every single sentence is a scandal . . .” (ibid.). Noting that Popper takes the concept of open society from Bergson, he comments that Bergson did not develop it “for the sole purpose that the coffeehouse scum might have some-thing to botch.” Voegelin believed that Bergson would have thought that “Popper’s idea of the open society is ideological rubbish” (ibid.). Voegelin is only just getting started. He accuses Popper of “impertinent disregard for the achievements in this particular problem area [the history of political thought]” (Emberly and Cooper 1993: 68) and of being unable to reproduce accurately the ideas of Plato and Hegel. Popper is “a primitive ideological brawler.” Voegelin then strings more epithets together, “a failed intellectual,” “rascally impertinent, loutish; in terms of technical competence as a piece in the history of thought, it is dilettantish, and as a result is worthless” (Emberley and Cooper 1993: 67). The reader astonished at this undignified diatribe needs to remember that in the book in question Popper is vehement about the duty to think for oneself and not to defer to the authority of experts. Strauss and Voegelin agree on the opposite, and on the duty of the enlightened elite to defend standards. Strauss had said he was willing to keep Voegelin’s remarks to himself. Voegelin concludes: “It would not be suitable to show this letter to the unqualified. Where it concerns its factual contents, I would see it as a violation of the vocational duty you identified, to support this scandal through silence” (Emberly and Cooper 1993: 69). Following this invitation, Strauss showed the letter to Kurt Riezler, “who was thereby encouraged to throw his not inconsiderable influence into the balance against Popper’s probable appointment here [in the US]. You thereby helped to prevent a scandal.” With hindsight one might think that the scandal is that someone who had dared to challenge the traditional Germanic learning, the worship of the great men, the enemies of science and Enlightenment, is not met out in the open with argument, but is disposed of b