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Desarrollo socioeconómico y pobreza en América Latina y el Caribe

Mora-Alfaro, Jorge (2005): Desarrollo socioeconómico y pobreza en América Latina y el Caribe.

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The political and economical reforms applied in Latina American and Caribbean (LAC) countries, since the 80 decade, in the structural adjustment context, produced a break in relation to the development model followed for the majority of these nations, with evident differences between them, in the past three decades. In this document was tried to do a synthesis of the main socioeconomic Latin-American development tendencies, remarking the opportunities and obstacles to impulse the strategies that drove to the route of the human sustainability development. It was did an analysis of the most important reforms characteristics, and their mostly significant results. The modifications in the economic growth model established in the region, found poverty persistence, the inequality enlarge and the social mobility limitations, some of the most clear expressions of the difficulties to promote the human sustainability development in ALC. These were considered like the Achilles Heel of the development model and the economic policies adopted, in uniform and generalized manner, by the diverse and heterogeneous Latin-American and Caribbean societies during this period. The human deprivations magnitude and the damage suffered by natural resources base in the region, established significant challenges for global human sustainability development strategies impulse. In consequence, this situation positioning the themes of the poverty and the social inequalities in an outstanding point in the regional development agenda. In this work, was did a recount of the main procedures used to poverty measurement and present information about this social phenomenon evolution, major limitations of these countries population to have the benefit of the civil, political and social rights. Also, the document realized an analysis on the subject of the democracy development and the social exclusion, poverty and the inequalities in the social tissue of these nations. These processes offer an explanation of the restrictions to build democratic societies that profound the electorate democracy and create an integral citizenship in these nations. The document referred to some changes experimented by the civil society and his essential position in the citizenship building and in the regional democratic processes. Likewise, was did a social policies orientation analysis, in the frame of the economic and political reforms established in the eighties decade as well the demands of these policies reorientation as a consequence of the poverty, inequality and social exclusion persistent in the ALC countries. The information with reference to the public social investment evolution, in the different regional societies, is a good indicator about the states effort against the poverty and inequality. At least, was analyzed the communitarian development, the social capital and the actions with an ascendant focus, impulse from the particular conditions (productive, economic, institutional, social and environmental) of the diverse urban and rural local spaces. This is understand as relevant route to strengthen the local democracy, to build citizenship, promote the human, economic, political, socio cultural and protection capacities between the deprived families. The results obtained with the development of these initiatives, and the particular experiences and the public and privet institutions that facilitate or promote these initiatives, with the participation of the local communities, have much potential importance to influence the policies definition, the development orientation and in the indication of the limitations to sustainability development that was born with the growth economic model prevailing during the last two decades in the majority of the Latin American and Caribbean countries.

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