Yasir, Agha (2009): The Political Economy of Disaster Vulnerability: A Case Study of Pakistan Earthquake 2005.
Download (585kB) | Preview
Literature on natural hazards typically perceives disasters to be acts of God (or nature) while restricting the examination of their causes to biophysical and geographical explanations. This paper takes a different approach; first, it argues that disasters are socially constructed and, second, it situates the interactions of large-scale natural forces with local political-economic conditions within the context of vulnerability to contend that disasters are consequences of unresolved development challenges. Using the Pressure and Release (PAR) Model the paper suggests the usefulness of the concept of vulnerability that shapes local geographies of risk and weak institutions which transform and enhance the negative impacts of ‘natural’ hazards into ‘man-made’ disasters.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Political Economy of Disaster Vulnerability: A Case Study of Pakistan Earthquake 2005|
|Keywords:||Vulnerability, Natural Hazards, Disasters, Political Economy, Pakistan|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D73 - Bureaucracy ; Administrative Processes in Public Organizations ; Corruption
Y - Miscellaneous Categories > Y4 - Dissertations (unclassified) > Y40 - Dissertations (unclassified)
H - Public Economics > H1 - Structure and Scope of Government
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q54 - Climate ; Natural Disasters and Their Management ; Global Warming
F - International Economics > F5 - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy > F54 - Colonialism ; Imperialism ; Postcolonialism
P - Economic Systems > P1 - Capitalist Systems > P16 - Political Economy
N - Economic History > N5 - Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries > N55 - Asia including Middle East
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q58 - Government Policy
|Depositing User:||Yasir Agha|
|Date Deposited:||17 Feb 2010 23:41|
|Last Modified:||22 Mar 2017 13:01|
Adger, W.N. 1998. Indicators of Social and Economic Vulnerability to Climate Change in Vietnam. CSERGE Working Paper GEC 98-02. Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment University of East Anglia and University College London.
Adger, W.N. and Brooks, N. 2003. Global Environmental Change. In M. Pelling, ed. Natural Disasters and Development in a Globalizing World. London: Routledge. Ch. 2.
Albala-Bertrand, J., 1993., Political Economy of Large Natural Disasters. New York: Oxford University Press
Alexander, D. 1993. Natural Disasters. London: UCL Press
Alexander, D. 2000, Confronting Catastrophe, Terra Publishing, Hertfordshire
Alwang, J., Siegel, P.B. and Jorgensen S.L. 2001. Vulnerability: A View From Different Disciplines. Social Protection Discussion Paper Series. Social Proection Unit, The World Bank: Washington
Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development. 2005. The Pakistan Earthquake’s Impact on Women. APWLD Forum News, 18 (3) [Online] Available at: http://www.apwld.org/vol183-01.htm [Accessed 14 August 2009]
Asian Development Bank. 2005. Preliminary Damage and Need Assessment, Pakistan 2005 Earthquake. [Online] Available at: http://www.adb.org/documents/reports/pakistan-damage-needs-assessment.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2009]
Baker, S.M. 2009. Vulnerability and Resilience in Natural Disasters: A Marketing and Public Policy Perspective. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 28(1) Spring: pp.114-123
Bankoff, G., Frerks G. and Hilhorst, D. 2004. Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters Development and People. London: Earthscan
Birkman, J. ed. 2006. Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards: Towards Disaster Resilient Societies. New York: United Nations University Press
Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, T., and Wisner, B. 1994. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. London: Routledge.
Bogard, W.C. 1989. Bringing social theory to hazards research: conditions and consequences of the mitigation of environmental hazards. Sociological Perspectives No. 31: pp.147-68
Bogardi, J.J. 2006. Introduction. In J. Birkmann, Measuring vulnerability to hazards of natural origin. Towards disaster resilient societies. United Nations University Press, Tokyo, New York
Bohle, H-G. 2002a. Editorial: The geography of vulnerable food systems. Die Erde 133(4): pp.341-344
Bohle, H-G. 2002b. Land Degradation and Human Security. In , E.J. Plate, ed. Environment and Human Security – Contributions to a Workshop, 23-25 October 2002, Bonn. pp.3/1 – 3/6
Bolin, R. and Stanford, L. 1998. The Northridge Earthquake: Vulnerability and Disaster. Routledge, London
Bourdelais, P. 2005. What is Vulnerability. Annales De Demographie Historique, No.2: pp.11-15
Bruce, R., 1900. The Forward Policy. London: Longmans, Green, and Co.
Burki, E. 2006. The Pakistan earthquake and the health needs of women. Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, Issue 34 [Online] Available at http://www.odihpn.org/report.asp?id=2809 [Accessed 13 August 2009]
Burton, I., Kates, R.W. and White, G.F. 1993. The Environment as Hazard. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford
Cannon, T. 1994. Vulnerability Analysis and Natural Disasters. In A. Varley. Ed. Disasters Development and Environment. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. London, pp. 13-30.
Cannon, T. 2008. Reducing People’s Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, Communities and Resilience. Research Paper No. 2008/34. UNU-WIDER Publications
Cannon, T. Twigg, J. and Rowell, J. 2003. Social Vulnerability, Sustainable Livelihoods and Disasters. Report to DFID. Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Department (CHAD) and Sustainable Livelihoods Office London.
Cardona, O.D. 2004. The Need for Rethinking the Concepts of Vulnerability and Risk from a Holistic Perspective: a Necessary Review and Criticism for Effective Risk Management. In G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, and D. Hilhorst. Eds. Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. London. pp. 37-51.
Chambers, R., Pacey, A. and Thrupp, L. Eds. 1989. Farmer First. London: Intermediate Technology Publications
Cohen, C. and Werker, E.D. 2008. The Political Economy of Natural Disasters. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 52(6): pp.795-819
Cohen, Y.A. 1968. Man in Adaptation: The Cultural Present. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co.
Cutter, S.L. 1996. Vulnerability to environmental hazards: Progress in Human Geography. No. 20: pp. 529-39
Department for International Development (DFID). 2006. South Asia Earthquake, Situation Report No. 44. [Online] Available at: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWFiles2005.nsf/FilesByRWDocUNIDFileName/HMYT-6HRLDP-dfid-southasia-02nov.pdf/$File/dfid-southasia-02nov.pdf [Accessed 13 August 2009]
Dow, K. 1992. Exploring differences in our common future(s): the meaning of vulnerability to global environmental change. Geoforum, No. 23, pp.417-36
Dow, K. and Downing, T.E. 1995. Vulnerability research: where things stand. Human Dimensions Quarterly, No.1: pp. 3-5
Downing, T.E. 1991. Vulnerability to hunger and coping with climate change in Africa. Global Environmental change in Africa, No.1: pp. 365-80
Dyer, Christoper L. 1999. The Phoenix Effect in Post-Disaster Recovery: An Analysis of the Economic Development Administration’s Culture of Response after Hurricane Andrew. In A.
Oliver-Smith and S. M. Hoffman, eds. The Angry Earth. New York: Routledge, pp.278–300. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. 2006. Special Earthquake Report. [Online] Available at: http://cobweb.ecn.purdue.edu/~ayhan/EQ/2005%2010%2008%20Kashmir/kashmir_eeri_1st_report.pdf [Accessed 13 August 2009]
Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority. 2005. Annual Review. Prime Minister Secretariat, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. [Online] Available at: http://www.erra.gov.pk/Reports/ERRA-Review-200506.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2009]
Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2008-09. Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan, [Online] Available at: http://www.finance.gov.pk/finance_survery_chapter.aspx?id=21 [Accessed 14 August 2009]
Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2005-06, Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan [Online] Available at: http://www.accountancy.com.pk/docs/economic-survey-of-pakistan-2005-06.pdf [Accessed 13 July 2009]
Escobar, A. 1995. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Fordham, M. 2004. Gendering Vulnerability Analysis: Towards a More Nuanced Approach. In G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, and D. Hilhorst, eds. Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development & People. London: Earthscan, pp.174–82.
Frantzova1, A., Mardirosian, G. and Ranguelov, B. 2008. Methodology for complex risk analysis of floods in Bulgaria, BALWOIS 2008 – OHRID. Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
Gabor, T. and Griffith, T.K. 1980. The assessment of community vulnerability to acute hazardous material incidents. Journal of Hazardous Materials No.8: pp. 323-33
Global Security. 2005. Balakot, Pakistan 2005 Earthquake Emergency. [Online] Available at: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/balakot-pi20051018a8.htm [Accessed 15 August 2009]
Green, C., Veen, A. van der, Wierstra, E. and Penning-Rowsell, E. 1994. Vulnerability refined: analysing full flood impacts. In Penning-Rowsell, E.C. and Fordham, M. Eds. Flood across Europe: Flood Hazard Assessment, Modelling and Management. Middlesex University Press: London, pp. 32-68
Harp, E.L. and Crone, A.J. 2006. Landslides Triggered by the October 8, 2005 Earthquake and Associated Landslide-Dammed Reservoirs. USGS. [Online} Available at: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1052/of06-1052.html [Accessed 13 August 2009]
Hewitt, K. 1997. Regions of Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters. Essex: Longman.
Hoogeveen, J., Tesliuc, E., Vakis, R. and Dercon, S. 2004. A Guide to the Analysis of Risk, Vulnerability and Vulnerable Groups. Washington: The University of Oxford
International Crisis Group. 2006. Pakistan: Political Impact of the Earthquake. Asia Briefing No. 46. [Online] Available at: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=4023 [Accessed 14 July 2009]
Kates, R.W. 1985. The interaction of climate and society. in R.W. Kates, J.H. Ausubel and M. Berberian. Eds. Climate Impact Assessment. Wiley: New York, NY, pp. 3-36
Liverman, D. 1990. Vulnerability to global environmental change. In R.E. Kasperson, K. Dow, D. Golding and J.X. Kasperson. Eds. Understanding Global Environmental Change: The Contributions of Risk Analysis and Management. Clark University: Worcester, pp. 27-44
Lundy, K.C. and Janes, S. 2009. Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public’s Health. 2nd ed. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc: Massachusetts
Lynch, D. 2005. Structure, Chance and choice for Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Khudai Khidmatgars, Asian Reflection [Online] Available at: http://www.asianreflection.com/structurechancechoice.pdf [Accessed 13 August 2009]
Makoka, D. and Kaplan, M. 2005. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach. Unpublished. [Online] Available at: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/6964/ [Accessed on 1st August 2009]
Markey, D. S. 2008. Securing Pakistan's Tribal Belt. Council on Foreign Relations.
McFadden, L. Vulnerability Analysis in Environmental Management: Widening and Deepening its approach. Environmental Conservation 34(3): 195-204. 2007.
Nathan, F. 2005. Vulnerabilities to Natural Hazards: models and application on Landslide Risks in La Paz, Bolivia. World International Studies Conference (WISC) at Bilgi University, Istambul, Turkey, 24-27 August 2005
Oliver-Smith, A. 2004. Theorizing vulnerability in a globalized world: a political ecological perspective. In G. Bankoff, G. Frerks and D. Hilhorst. Eds. Mapping vulnerability: disasters, development & people. Sterling, VA: Earthscan, pp.10-24.
Pelling, M. ed. 2003. Natural Disasters and Development in a Globalizing World. London: Routledge
Petak, W.J. and Atkisson, A.A. 1982. Natural Hazard Risk Assessment and Public Policy: Anticipating the Unexpected. Springer: New York, NY
Prowse, M. 2003. Towards a clearer understanding of ‘vulnerability’ in relation to chronic poverty. CPRC Working Paper, No 24: Manchester.
Rogers, T. 1990. Population Growth and Movement in Pakistan: A Case Study. Asian Survey, 30 (5), pp. 446-460
Rothman, D. S. and Robinson, J.B. 1997. Growing pains: A conceptual framework for considering integrated assessments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 46: pp. 23–43.
Sarewitz, D., Pielke, R. and Keykhah, M. 2003. Vulnerability and Risk: Some Thoughts from a Political and Policy Perspective. Risk Analysis, 23(4)
Sen, A. 1981. Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon
Sen, A. 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Shirazi, S.A. 2006. Patterns of Urbanization in Pakistan: A Demographic Appraisal Department of Geography, University of the Punjab Lahore-Pakistan
Stewart, I. and Donovan, K. 2008. Natural Hazards. In S. Buckingham and M. Turner. Understanding Environmental Issues. SAGE Publications, Ch.9
Susan L. Cutter, 1993. Living with Risk. London: Edward Arnold. 214 pp. Susman, P., O’Keefe, P. and Wisner, B. 1983. Global disasters: a radical interpretation. In Hewitt, K. ed. Interpretations of Calamity. Allen & Unwin: Boston, MA, pp. 264-83
Tahir, P. and Shahnaz, L. 2003. Pakistan: Background Information and Some Analysis of Migration. Regional Conference on Migration, Development and Pro-poor policy Choices in Asia, Dhaka, Bangladesh: 22-24 June
Tandon, A. and Hasan, R. 2005. Conceptualizing and Measuring Poverty as Vulnerability: Does it Make a Difference. Asian Development Bank ERD Policy Brief Series No. 41, Economics and Research Department
Timmerman, P. 1981. Vulnerability, resilience and the Collapse of Society. Environmental Monograph No. 1, Toronto: Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Toronto
Turner, B.L. II, Kasperson, R.E., Matson, P., McCarthy, J.J., Corell, R.W., Christensen, L., Eckley, N., Kasperson, J.X., Luers, A., Martello, M.L., Polsky, C., Pulsipher, A. and Schiller, A. 2003. Framework for vulnerability analysis in sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100, 8074–78.
Twigg, J. 2007. Disaster Reduction Terminology: A Commonsense approach, Humanitarian Practice Network. Issue 38, [Online] Available at: http://www.odihpn.org/report.asp?id=2893 [Accessed 25 July 2009]
UNHCR. 2009. UNHCR and Pakistan sign new agreement on stay of Afghan refugees. UNHCR News Stories, 13 March. [Online] Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/49ba5db92.html [Accessed 14 August 2009]
UNDP. 2004. Reducing Disaster Risk – A Challenge for Development. [Online] Available at: http://www.undp.org/cpr/disred/documents/publications/rdr/english/rdr_english.pdf [Accessed 20 July 2009]
UNDRO. 1982. Natural disasters and vulnerability analysis. Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Co-ordinator, Geneva.
UNDRO. 1991. Mitigation Natural Disasters; Phenomena, Effects, and Options. Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator, Geneva
UNICEF. 2005. Post Earthquake Health Situation. [Online] Available at: http://www.pakhumanitarianforum.com.pk/modules/cjaycontent/Post_Earthquake_Health_Situation.pdf. [Accessed on 14 August 2009]
UNISDR. 2002. A Global Review of Disaster Reduction Initiatives. Preliminary Report, Geneva. [Online] Available at: http://www.undp.org/cpr/disred/documents/publications/isdr_livingwithrisk2002.pdf [Accessed 21 July 2009]
UNISDR. 2004. Living with Risk – A Global Review of disaster Reduction initiatives. [Online] Available at: http://www.unisdr.org/eng/about_isdr/bd-lwr-2004-eng.htm [Accessed 21 July 2009]
UNISDR. 2008. Linking Disaster Risk Reduction and Poverty Reduction – Good Practices and Lessons learned. [Online] Available at: http://www.unisdr.org/eng/about_isdr/isdr publications/14_Linking_Disaster_Risk_Reduction_Poverty_Reduction/Linking_Disaster_Risk_Reduction_Poverty_Reduction.pdf [Accessed 21 July 2009]
UNISDR. 2009. Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk. [Online] Available at: http://www.preventionweb.net/english/hyogo/gar/report/index.php?id=1130&pid:34&pih:2 [Accessed 21 July 2009]
USGS. 2009. Most Destructive Earthquakes on Record in the World [Online] Available at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/most_destructive.php. [Accessed 13 August 2009]
Vogel, C. 2001. Vulnerability and Global Environmental Change. [Online] Available at: http://www.aiaccproject.org/resources/ele_lib_docs/vogel_vulnerability.pdf [Accessed 2nd August 2009]
Vogel, C. and O’Brien, K. 2004. Vulnerability and Global Environmental Change: Rhetoric and Reality. AVISO March 13, 2004.
Watts, M.J. and Bohle, H.G. 1993. The space of vulnerability: the causal structure of hunger and famine. Progress in Human Geography, No. 17: pp.43-67
Weichselgartner, J. 2001. Disaster mitigation: the concept of vulnerability revisited. Disaster Prevention and Management, 10 (2): pp.85-94
Weichselgartner, J. and Bertens, J. 2000. Natural disasters: acts of God, nature or society? – On the social relation to natural hazards. In M.A. Andretta. Ed. Risk Analysis II. WIT Press: Southhampton, pp. 3-12
Wijkman, A. and Timberlake, L. 1988. Natural Disasters: Acts of God or Acts of Man? New Society Publishers: Pennsylvania
Wisner, B. 2004. Assessment of Capability and Vulnerability. In G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, and D. Hilhorst, eds. Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development & People. London: Earthscan, pp.183–93.
Wisner, B., Blaikie, P.M., Cannon, T. and Davis, I. 2004. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters. 2nd ed. Routledge: London
World Bank. 2006. Hazards of Nature, Risks to Development. An IEG Evaluation of World Bank Assistance for Natural Disasters, International Evaluation Group,
World Bank. 2005. World Development Indicators [Online] Available at: http://devdata.worldbank.org/wdi2005/Cover.htm [Accessed 13 August 2009]