Fent, Thomas (2006): Collective Social Dynamics and Social Norms.
Download (897kB) | Preview
How individual behaviour is determined or at least influenced by social norms is one of the classic questions of social theory. We consider a norm as a rule guiding individual decisions concerning rituals, beliefs, traditions, and routines. Whenever coordinated behaviour is enforced without the help of an authority, this may be due to social norms. The individual being in the situation of taking a decision at the micro level is guided by social norms imposed at the macro level. The set of all individual decisions in a society generates the macro level behaviour of the system which may strengthen or weaken the existing social norms. Thus, the long run development of social norms is the result of collective dynamics within a social network.
We use an agent based simulation model to investigate the emergence, stability, and replacement of social norms within a population of artificial agents. A social network connecting the agents serves to communicate the social norms and the actual behaviour among the agent population. The agents in the network possess two types of links connecting them with their ingroup and with their outgroup, respectively. Agents have the desire to be associated and accepted by the members of their ingroup and they want to be different from the members of their outgroup. Consequently, they derive a utility from adhering to the social norm of their ingroup and from deviating from the social norm of their outgroup. Agents may adopt their behaviour according to the norms given by their ingroup and outgroup. Thus, our model explains under what conditions social norms prevail within a subgroup of the society or even become global norms being respected within the whole population.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||Austrian Academy of Sciences|
|Original Title:||Collective Social Dynamics and Social Norms|
|Keywords:||social norms; sociel networks; social interaction; collective social dynamics; ingroup; outgroup; agent based modelling|
|Subjects:||C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C6 - Mathematical Methods ; Programming Models ; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling > C63 - Computational Techniques ; Simulation Modeling
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C6 - Mathematical Methods ; Programming Models ; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling > C61 - Optimization Techniques ; Programming Models ; Dynamic Analysis
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z13 - Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology ; Social and Economic Stratification
D - Microeconomics > D8 - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty > D85 - Network Formation and Analysis: Theory
|Depositing User:||Thomas Fent|
|Date Deposited:||20. Apr 2007|
|Last Modified:||13. Feb 2013 11:32|
Aparicio Diaz, B. and Fent, T. (2006). An agent–based simulation model of age–at–marriage norms. In Billari, F. C., Fent, T., Prskawetz, A., and Scheffran, J., editors, Agent-Based Computational Modelling: Applications in Demography, Social, Economic and Environmental Sciences, Contributions to Economics, pages 85–116. Springer.
Axelrod, R. (1986). An evolutionary approach to norms. The American Political Science Review, 80(4):1095–1111.
Barabasi, A.-L. and Albert, R. (1999). Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science, 286(5439):509–512.
Billari, F. C. and Mencarini, L. (2004). Norms and sanctions on secual life and marriage of young adults. In Dalia Zuana, G. and Crisafulli, C., editors, Sexual Behaviour of Italian Students, pages 361–379. Department of Statistics, University of Messina, Italy.
Billari, F. C., Prskawetz, A., and F¨urnkranz, J. (2003). On the cultural evolution of age–at–marriage norms. In Billari, F. C. and Prskawetz, A., editors, Agent–Based Computational Demography: Using Simulation to Improve Our Understanding of Demographic Behaviour, Contributions to Economics, pages 139–157. Physica–Verlag.
Brenner, T., Weidlich, W., and Witt, U. (2002). International co–movements of business cycles in a ‘phase–locking” model. Metroeconomica, 53(2):113– 138.
Cole, H. L., Mailath, G. J., and Postlewaite, A. (1992). Social norms, savings behaviour, and growth. Journal of Political Economy, 100:1092–1125. Cole, H. L., Mailath, G. J., and Postlewaite, A. (1998). Class systems and the enforcement of social norms. Journal of Public Economics, 70:5–35.
Collins, J. J. and Chow, C. C. (1998). It’s a small-world. nature, 393(4):409– 410.
Diekmann, A. and Voss, T. (2003). Social norms and reciprocity. Paper presented on the session “Solidarity and social norms — models and mechanisms”, Sektion Modellbildung und Simulation, Leipzig, October 2002.
Ehrlich, P. R. and Levin, S. A. (2005). The evolution of norms. PLoS Biology, 3(6):943–948.
Fehr, E. and Fischbacher, U. (2004a). Social norms and human cooperation. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 8(4):185–190.
Fehr, E. and Fischbacher, U. (2004b). Third–party punishment and social norms. Evolution and Human Behaviour, 25:63–87.
Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6):1360–1380.
Granovetter, M. S. (1983). The strength of weak ties: A networl theory revisited. Sociological Theory, 1:201–233.
Granovetter, M. S. (1985). Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91(3):481–510.
Haferkamp, H. (1976). Herrschaft und Strafrecht. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, third edition.
Lindbeck, A., Nyberg, S., and Weibull, J. W. (1999). Social norms and economic incentives in the welfare state. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(1):1–35.
Palivos, T. (2001). Social norms, fertility and economic development. Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control, 25:1919–1934.
Rahmandad, H. and Sterman, J. (2004). Heterogeneity and network structures in the dynamics of diffusion: Comparing agent-based and differential equation models. MIT Sloan Working Paper 4512–04.
Saam, N. J. and Harrer, A. (1999). Simulating norms, social inequality, and functional change in artificial societies. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 2(1).
Scott, J. F. (1971). Internalization of Norms. Prentice–Hall.
Watts, D. J. and Strogatz, S. H. (1998). Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’ networks. nature, 393(4):440–442.
Weidlich, W. and Brenner, T. (1995). Dynamics of demand including fashion effects for interacting consumer groups. In Wagner, A. and Lorenz, H.-W., editors, Studien zur Evolutorischen Ökonomik, Studien zur Evolutorischen Ökonomik III, Neue Folge Band 195/III, pages 79–115. Verein für Socialpolitik, Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts– und Sozialwissenschaften.