Feige, Edgar L. and Cebula, Richard (2011): America’s unreported economy: measuring the size, growth and determinants of income tax evasion in the U.S. Forthcoming in: Crime, Law and Social Change No. April, 2012 (April 2012)
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This study empirically investigates the extent of noncompliance with the tax code and examines the determinants of federal income tax evasion in the U.S. Employing a refined version of Feige’s (1986; 1989) General Currency Ratio (GCR) model to estimate a time series of unreported income as our measure of tax evasion, we find that 18-23 % of total reportable income may not properly be reported to the IRS. This gives rise to a 2009 “tax gap” in the range of $390-$537 billion. As regards the determinants of tax noncompliance, we find that federal income tax evasion is an increasing function of the average effective federal income tax rate, the unemployment rate, the nominal interest rate, and per capita real GDP, and a decreasing function of the IRS audit rate. Despite important refinements of the traditional currency ratio approach for estimating the aggregate size and growth of unreported economies, we conclude that the sensitivity of the results to different benchmarks, imperfect data sources and alternative specifying assumptions precludes obtaining results of sufficient accuracy and reliability to serve as effective policy guides.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||America’s unreported economy: measuring the size, growth and determinants of income tax evasion in the U.S.|
|Keywords:||Unreported economy; Underground economy; tax evasion; tax gap; noncompliance; income tax evasion; currency demand approach, currency ratio models|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O17 - Formal and Informal Sectors ; Shadow Economy ; Institutional Arrangements
E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics > E5 - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit > E52 - Monetary Policy
E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics > E2 - Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy > E26 - Informal Economy ; Underground Economy
H - Public Economics > H2 - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue > H26 - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
E - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics > E4 - Money and Interest Rates > E41 - Demand for Money
|Depositing User:||Edgar L. Feige|
|Date Deposited:||16. Nov 2011 18:03|
|Last Modified:||12. Feb 2013 15:27|
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