Houseworth, Christina and Fisher, Jonathan (2011): The Reverse Wage Gap among Educated White and Black Women. Published in: Journal of Economic Inequality
Download (817kB) | Preview
Using the 2004 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses and the 2004-2005 American Community Surveys, we estimate the black-white wage gap among females with at least some college education. We find that black female nurses earn 9 percent more at the mean and median than white female nurses, controlling for selection into nursing employment. Among K-12 teachers, black females earn 7 percent more than white females at the median. There is no black-white wage gap among all women with a bachelor’s degree. Differences in opportunities for education and marriage between white and black women may explain why highly educated black females earn on par with highly educated white females.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||The Reverse Wage Gap among Educated White and Black Women|
|Keywords:||Human capital, differential demand and supply for schooling, wage gaps|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J3 - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs > J31 - Wage Level and Structure ; Wage Differentials
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J0 - General > J01 - Labor Economics: General
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J0 - General
|Depositing User:||Christina Houseworth|
|Date Deposited:||28. Aug 2012 10:08|
|Last Modified:||14. Mar 2015 14:38|
Alliance for Excellent Education. 2008. African American Students and U.S. High Schools. http://www.all4ed.org/files/archive/publications/AfAm_FactSheet.pdf
Anderson, D. and D. Shapiro. 1996. Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap Between Black and White Women. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 49(2), (January): 273-286.
Auerbach, D. I., P. I. Buerhaus, and D. O. Staiger. 2007. Better late than Never: Workforce Supply Implications of Later Entry into Nursing. Health Affairs 26, (January/February): 178-185.
Beblo, M., D. Beninger, A. Heinze, and F. Laisney. 2003. Measuring Selectivity-Corrected Gender Wage Gaps in the EU. ZEW Discussion Papers No. 03-74.
Becker, G. S. and B. R. Chiswick.1966. The Economics of Education and the Distribution of Earnings. American Economic Review 56 (March): 358-369.
Black, D., A. Haviland, S. Sanders, and L. Taylor. 2006. Why Do Minority Men Earn Less? A Study of Wage Differentials Among the Highly Educated.” Review of Economics and Statistics 88(1): 300-313.
Black, D., A. Haviland, S. Sanders, and L. Taylor. 2008. Gender Wage Disparities Among the Highly Educated” The Journal of Human Resources 43(1): 630-659.
Black, S. and A. Sufi. 2002. Who Goes to College? Differential Enrollment by Race and Family Background. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 9310.
Blinder, A. S. 1973. Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates. The Journal of Human Resources 8 No.4 (Fall): 436-455.
Bollinger, C. R. 2003. Measurement Error in Human Capital and the Black-White Wage Gap. The Review of Economics and Statistics 85 (August): 578-585.
Caldwell Jr., R. 2009. The Effects of University Affirmative Action Policies on Human Capital Development of Minority Children: Do Expectations Matter? Unpublished manuscript, Department of Economics, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Cameron, S. V. and J. J. Heckman. 2001. The Dynamics of Educational Attainment for Black, Hispanic, and White Males. Journal of Political Economy 109 (June): 455-499.
Carneiro, P., and J. J. Heckman. 2003. Human Capital Policy. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No.9495.
Chiswick, B. R. 1988. Differences in Education and Earnings Across Racial and Ethnic Groups: Tastes, Discrimination and Investment in Child Quality. Quarterly Journal of Economics 103 (August): 571-597.
The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. 1997. The Effect of Higher Education on Interracial Marriage. 16: 55-56.
Gould, E. D., and M. Daniele Paserman. 2003. Waiting for Mr. Right: Rising Inequality and Declining Marriage Rates. Journal of Urban Economics 53: 257-281.
Gullickson, A.. 2006. Education and Black -White Interracial Marriage. Demography 43 (November): 673-689.
Heckman, J. J. 1979. Sample selection bias as a specification error. Econometrica 47 (January): 153–161.
Houseworth, C. A. 2008. Human Capital and Interracial Marriage in the United States. Unpublished Manuscript.
Jacobsen, J., C. Olsen, J. King Rice, S. Sweetland, and J. Ralph. 2001. Educational Attainment and Black-White Inequality. National Center for Education Statistics: Statistical Analysis Report (July).
Jones, C. Bland, and M. Gates. 2004. Gender-Based Wage Differentials in a Predominantly Female Profession: Observations from Nursing. Economics of Education Review 23(6) (December): 615-631.
Lichter, D., F. LeClere, and D. McLaughlin. 1991. Local Marriage Markets and the Marital Behavior of Black and White Women. American Journal of Sociology 96(4) (January): 843-867.
Linsenmeier, D., M., H. S. Rosen, and C. Elena Rouse. 2002. Financial Aid Packages and College Enrollment Decisions: An Econometric Case Study National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No 9228.
Neal, D. A. 2004. The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small. Journal of Political Economy 112 (February): 1-28.
Neal, D. A. and W. R. Johnson. 1996. The Role of Premarket Factors in Black-White Wage Differences. The Journal of Political Economy 104 (October): 869-895.
Oaxaca, R.. 1973. Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets. International Economic Review 14 (October): 693-709.
O’Neill, J., and D. O’Neill. 2005. What do Wage Differentials tell us about Labor Market Discrimination? NBER Working Paper 11240.
Qian, Z..1997. Breaking the Racial Barriers: Variations in Interracial marriage Between 1980 and 1990. Demography 34 (May): 263-276.
Orfield, G., and C. Lee. 2005. Why Segregation Matters: Poverty and Educational Inequality. Harvard Civil Rights Project.
Seitz, S., 2009. Accounting for Racial Differences in Marriage and Employment. Journal of Labor Economics 27(3): 385-437. 4 (May): 263-276.
Urzua, S. 2008. Racial Labor Market Gaps The Role of Abilities and Schooling Choices. The Journal of Human Resources 43(4): 919-971.
Veneri, C. M. 1999. Can Occupational Labor Shortages be Identified using Available Data? Monthly Labor Review (March): 15-21.