Chaudhary, Amatul R. and Chani, Muhammad Irfan and Pervaiz, Zahid (2012): An analysis of different approaches to women empowerment: a case study of Pakistan. Published in: World Applied Sciences Journal , Vol. 16, No. 7 (2012): pp. 971-980.
Download (281kB) | Preview
Women empowerment has attracted the attention of researchers as an active area of research since 1980s. It can be viewed as an ultimate end as well as a mean to achieve other development goals. The present study is an attempt to investigate how consciousness /sensitization of women about their rights, economic empowerment of women and women’s overall development can be helpful in achieving the goal of women’s empowerment. The study uses data for the period of 1996 to 2009 for Pakistan. Empirical results reveal that consciousness of women about their rights, economic empowerment of women and women’s overall development have positive and significant effect on women’s empowerment as measured by Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) index. Granger Causality Test confirms the existence of bi-directional causality between women’s overall development and women’s empowerment. A unidirectional causality exists between sensitization of women and women’s empowerment.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||An analysis of different approaches to women empowerment: a case study of Pakistan|
|Keywords:||Women Empowerment; labour force participation; Gender Development; Gender inequality|
|Subjects:||D - Microeconomics > D6 - Welfare Economics > D63 - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C2 - Single Equation Models ; Single Variables > C22 - Time-Series Models ; Dynamic Quantile Regressions ; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models ; Diffusion Processes
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J16 - Economics of Gender ; Non-labor Discrimination
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J2 - Demand and Supply of Labor > J23 - Labor Demand
|Depositing User:||Muhammad Irfan Chani|
|Date Deposited:||01 Apr 2012 06:40|
|Last Modified:||29 Apr 2016 18:01|
1. Galey, M.E., 1986. The Nairobi Conference: The Powerless Majority, PS 19:255-265 as quoted in Sen, G., Germain, A. and Chen, L.C. (1994). Population Policies Reconsidered. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
2. Kabeer, Naila, 2005. Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: A Critical Analysis of the Third Millennium Development Goal. Gender and Development 13,13-24.
3. Moreau, M. J., 1990. Empowerment through Advocacy and Consciousness-Raising: Implications of a Structural Approach to Social Work. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 17(2), 53-67.
4. Wallace, T. and C. March, 1991. Changing Perception: Writing on Gender and Development. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxfam Press.
5. Moser, Caroline O., 1993. Gender Planning and Development: Theory Practice and Training. London: Routledge.
6. Shields, L. E., 1995. Women’s Experiences of the Meaning of Empowerment. Qualitative Health Research, 5(1), 15-35.
7. UNDP, 1995. Human Development Report. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
8. Anand, S. and A. Sen, 1995. Gender inequality in Human Development: Theories and Measurement, in Fukuda-Parr, S. Kumar, and A.K. S. (eds.), Readings in Human Development, New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
9. Bardhan, K. and Klasen, S., 1999. UNDP’s Gender Related Indices: A Critical Review. World Development, 27(6), 986-1010.
10. Malhotra, A., Schuler, S. and Boender, C., 2002. Measuring Women’s Empowerment as a Variable in International Development. Draft, PRMGE, Washington, DC : The World Bank.
11. Mahanta, A., 2002. Human Rights and Women of North East India. Dibrugarh, India: Centre for Women’s Studies, Dibrugarh University.
12. Mathew, G., 2003. Keynote address in the workshop on “A Decade of Women’s Empowerment through Local Governance”. Organized jointly by Institute of Social Sciences and South Asia Partnership, Canada.
13. Government of Assam, 2003. Assam Human Development Report, 2003. Assam, India: Government of Assam.
14. Kishor, S. and Gupta, K., 2004. Women’s Empowerment in India and Its States: Evidence from the NFHS. Economic and Political Weekly, 39(7), 694-712.
15. Ranis, G. and Stewart, F., 2005. Dynamic Links between the Economy and Human Development, DESA Working Paper No. 8. http://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers.
16. Blumberg R. L., 2005. Women’s Economic Empowerment as the Magic Potion of Development? Paper presented at the 100th annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Philadelphia, USA.
17. Kripa, V. and Surendranathan, V.G., 2008. Social Impact and Women Empowerment through Mussel Farming in Kerala, India. Development, 51(2), 199–204.
18. Trivedi, J., Priyan,P. K. and Bhinde, V., 2011. The Role of Dairy Cooperatives in Women Empowerment. The IUP Journal of Agricultural Economics, 8(1), 41-51.
19. Batliwala, S., 1994. The Meaning of Women’s Empowerment: New Concepts from Action. in Sen, G., Germain, A. and Chen, L.C. (eds.) Population Policies Reconsidered. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
20. Pasha, H. A. and Fatima, M., 1999. Fifty Years of Public Finance in Pakistan: A Trend Analysis. in Khan, S. R. (eds.) Fifty years of Pakistan’s Economy: Traditional Topics and Contemporary Concerns. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press.
21. UNDP, various issues. Human Development Report. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
22. Government of Pakistan, various issues. Pakistan Economic Survey 2008-2009. Islamabad, Pakistan: Finance Division, Government of Pakistan.
23. World Bank, 2011. World Development Indicators (WDI) Online Database. Washington D.C., USA: The World Bank.
24. Engle, R.F., and Granger, C. W. J., 1987. Cointegration and error correction: representation, estimation, and testing. Econometrica, 55, 251–276.
25. Stock, J.H. and Watson, M.W., 1988. Testing for Common Trends. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83(404), 1097-1107.
26. Johansen, S., 1988. Statistical Analysis of Co-integrating Vectors. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12(2-3), 231-254.
27. Johansen, S., 1991. Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Co-integration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models. Econometrica, 59(6), 1551-1580.
28. Johansen, S., 1992. Determination of Co-integration Rank in the Presence of a Linear Trend. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 54(3), 383-397.
29. Johansen, S., 1995. Likelihood-based Inference in Co-integrated Vector Autoregressive Models. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
30. Johansen, S. and Juselius, K., 1990. Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Co-integration - with Applications to the Demand for Money. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 52(2), 169-210.
31. Pesaran, M. H., Shin, Y. and Smith, R. J., 2001. Bounds Testing Approaches to the Analysis of Level Relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3), 289-326.
32. Granger C.W.J., 1988. Causality, cointegration and control. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12, 551-559.
33. Ng, S. and Perron, P., 2001. Lag Length Selection and the Construction of Unit Root Test with Good Size and Power. Econometrica, 69(6), 1519-54.
34. Haq, M. U., 1983. The Poverty Curtain. Lahore, Pakistan: Ferozesons Limited.
35. Haq, M. U., 1995. Reflection on Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
36. Chaudhary, A. R., 1975a. Role of Women in Economic Development: A Case Study of Pakistan 1947-75. Economic Journal, 8,107-122.
37. Chaudhary, A. R., 1975b. Growth and Composition of Female Education in Pakistan 1947-75. Pakistan Economic and Social Review 13(1), 28-41.
38. Chaudhary, A. R., 1975c. Population Growth, Employment and Economic Development with Special Reference to Pakistan. Paper presented and published in the proceedings of Workshop on Population Education for Teacher Trainees; Workshop jointly organized by university of the Punjab and UNESCO.
39. Chaudhary, A. R., 1976. Some Socio-Economic Variables Affecting Birth Rate with Special Reference to Pakistan. Economic Journal 9, 73-84.
40. Mencher, J., 1988. Women’s Work and Poverty: Women’s Contribution to Household Maintenance in South India. In Dwyer, D. and Bruce, J. (eds), A Home Divided: Women and Income in the Third World, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
41. Batliwala, S., 1985. Women in Poverty: The Energy, Health and Nutrition Syndrome. In Jain, D. and Banerjee, N. (eds.), Tyranny of the Household: Investigative Essays on Women’s Work, New Delhi, India: Shakti Books.
42. Desai, S., 1994. Women’s Burdens: Easing the Structural Constraints. in Sen, G., Germain, A. and Chen, L.C. (eds.), Population Policies Reconsidered, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
43. Mahmud, S. and Anne, M. J., 1994. Women’s Status, Empowerment, and Reproductive Outcomes, in Sen, G., Germain, A. and Chen, L.C. (eds.), Population Policies Reconsidered, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
44. Meng, Xin., 1998. The Economic Position of Women in Asia. Amsterdam: CLARA Working Paper, No.4. (http://www.iisg.nl/~clara/publicat/clara4.pdf).
45. Heyzer, N., 2000. Making the Links: Women’s Rights and Empowerment are Keys to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Gender and Development 13, 9-12.
46. Chaudhary, A. R., 1996. Women in Pakistan: Fifty Years of Investment in Population Planning: Policy Options for the 21st Century. Journal of Research (Humanities) 30, 3-21.
47. Chaudhary, A. R., 2000. An Economic Analysis of Pakistan’s Investment in Population Control. Pakistan Economic and Social Review 38, 167-192.
48. Anand, S., 1994. Population, Well-being and Freedom in Sen, G., Germain, A. and Chen, L.C. (eds.), Population Policies Reconsidered, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
49. UNDP, 1996. Human Development Report. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
50. Toda, H.Y. and T. Yamamoto, 1995. Statistical Inferences in Vector Autoregressions with Possibly Integrated Processes. Journal of Econometrics, 66, 225-250.