SÖNMEZ, ALPER and PAMUKÇU, MEHMET TEOMAN (2011): Türkiye Otomotiv Sektöründe Çokuluslu Şirketler Aracılığıyla Ana Sanayiden Yan Sanayiye Yapılan Bilgi ve Teknoloji Transferinin Analizi. Published in: : pp. 1-151.
Download (2MB) | Preview
The main question at the basis of this research project is whether Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) occurring in the Turkish automobile industry has any effect on local suppliers, especially whether and to what extent it leads to knowledge and technology transfers towards local suppliers. Therefore, the main objective is to determine what - if any - kind of knowledge and technology transfers occur from multinational companies (MNCs) in direction of their local suppliers in the Turkish automotive industry in the field of product design and production processes. In addition, the project aims at revealing those characteristics of local suppliers that influence the occurrence of these transfers, the place of these firms in the value chain of MNCs and the effect of the aforementioned transfers on the performance of local suppliers. In the course of this analysis, the volume and nature of innovation and research and development (R&D) activities of these firms will be explored as well.
The main reason for focusing on the automotive industry is the fact that the globalization process as well as technology and innovation activities of firms have been taking place now more rapidly and at a more global scale in the automotive industry than in many other industries. Other reasons are the existence of a large number of foreign firms in the Turkish automobile industry, the existence of increasing relationships between MNCs and local firms and the extensive R&D and innovation activities of firms taking place in this sector. To these must be added its growth and employment creation potential which has led this industry to become one of the most important strategic industries in the Turkey.
In this research project, two different methods were used to collect detailed data and information at the firm-level. First, a detailed questionnaire survey was designed and later conducted face to face with the production and/or R&D managers of the local suppliers. Second, face to face interviews based on a semi-structured interview guide were carried out with the top level managers of the main automotive manufacturers in Turkey. The main findings are: there are knowledge and technology transfers from foreign firms to their local suppliers on co-designer and co-development activities, the designing of production tools, the development or improvement of quality and control methods, the cost reduction and the design of materials. Econometric analysis points to the fact that these transfers exert a positive effect on the performance of supplier firms.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Türkiye Otomotiv Sektöründe Çokuluslu Şirketler Aracılığıyla Ana Sanayiden Yan Sanayiye Yapılan Bilgi ve Teknoloji Transferinin Analizi|
|English Title:||Analysis of Knowledge and Technology Transfer by Multinational Companies to Local Suppliers in the Turkish Automotive Industry|
|Keywords:||Otomotiv Sektörü / Bilgi ve Teknoloji Transferi / Çok Uluslu Şirketler (ÇUŞ) / Doğrudan Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımı (DYY)/ Yenilik / Araştırma ve Geliştirme (Ar-Ge)|
|Subjects:||F - International Economics > F2 - International Factor Movements and International Business > F23 - Multinational Firms ; International Business
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O3 - Innovation ; Research and Development ; Technological Change ; Intellectual Property Rights > O31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
|Depositing User:||ALPER SÖNMEZ|
|Date Deposited:||21 Jun 2012 06:21|
|Last Modified:||01 Feb 2016 11:46|
Aitken, B. J. ve Harrison A. E. (1999), “Do Domestic Firms Benefit from Direct Foreign Investment? Evidence from Venezuela”, American Economic Review, 89, 605-618.
Almeida, R. ve Fernandes A. M. (2008), “Openness and Technological Innovations in Developing Countries: Evidence from Firm-Level Surveys”, Journal of Development Studies, 44, 701-727.
Amemiya, T. (1981), “Qualitative response models: A survey”, Journal of Economic Literature, 19, 1483-1533.
Amiti, M. ve Konings, J. (2005), “Trade liberalization, intermediate inputs, and productivity: Evidence from Indonesia”, IMF Working Paper, Research Department, WP/05/146.
Bedir, A. (1999), “Gelişmiş otomotiv sanayilerinde ana-yan sanayi ilişkileri ve Türkiye’de otomotiv yan sanayinin geleceği”, DPT uzmanlık tezi, Yayın no: 2495, Ankara.
Bedir, A. (2002), “Türkiye’de otomotiv sanayi gelişme perspektifi”, DPT, Yayın no 2660, Ankara.
Berger, M. (2005), “Upgrading the System of Innovation in Late-Industrialising Countries - The Role of Transnational Corporations in Thailand’s Manufacturing Sector”, PhD. Thesis, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät.
Bernard, A. B. ve Jones, C. I. (1996), “Technology and Convergence”, Economic Journal, 106, 1037-1044.
Bernard, M. ve Ravenhill, J. (1995). “Beyond Product Cycles and Flying Geese: Regionalization, Hierarchy, and the Industrialization of East Asia”, World Politics. 47, 187-237.
Bigsten, A. P., Collier, S., Dercon, M., Fafchamps, B., Gauthier, J.W., Gunning, A., Isaksson, A., Oduro, R., Oostendorp, C., Pattillo, M., Soderbom, E Teal, ve A. Zeufack. (2002), “Do African Manufacturing Firms Learn from Exporting?”, Centre for the Study of African Economies Working Paper Series 2002-09, Oxford University, Oxford
Blalock, G. ve Veloso, F. M. (2007), “Imports, Productivity Growth, and Supply Chain Learning”, World Development, Vol. 35, No. 7: 1134–1151
Blomström, M. ve Kokko, A. (1996), “Multinational corporations and spillovers”, CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 1365.
Blomström, M. ve Sjöholm, F. (1999), “Technology transfer and spillovers: Does local participation with multinationals matter?” European Economic Review, 43: 915-923.
Borensztein, E., Gregorio, J. D. ve Lee, J-W. (1998), “How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth?” Journal of International Economics, 45, 115–135.
Basant, R. (1997), “Technology strategies of large enterprises in Indian industry. Some explorations”, World Development, 25, 1683-1700.
Braga, H. ve Willmore L. (1991), “Technological imports and technological effort : An analysis of their determinants in Brazilian firms”, Journal of Industrial Economics, 39, 421-432.
Cameron, A. C. ve Trivedi, P. K. (2010), Microeconometrics: Methods and applications. İkinci baskı, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Cohen, W.M. (2010), “Fifty Years of Empirical Studies of Innovative Activity and Performance”, Economics of Innovation (volume 1), Hall, B.H. and N. Rosenberg (eds), North Holland, 129-210.
Crépon, B., Duguet, E. ve Mairesse, J. (1998), “Research, Innovation and Productivity: An Econometric Analysis at the Firm Level”, NBER Working Paper No.6696. Çelikel, T. A. (2009), Factors Affecting Research and Development (R&D) Collaboration of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) and Their Local Partner Firms: A Case Study of Turkish Automotive Industry, Basılmamış doktora tezi, Department of Contemporary Management, Işık University, Istanbul.
Dayar, E. ve Pamukçu, T. (2011), Analysis of foreign ownership, R&D and spillovers in developing countries: Evidence from Turkey, Economic Research Forum’un 17. Uluslararası Konferansına sunulan bildiri, 20-22 March, 2011, Antalya (www.erf.org.eg),
De Negri, J. A. ve Turchi, L. M. (der.) (2007), Technological innovation in Brazilian and Argentine Firms, Institute for Applied Economic Research, Brezilya.
Dicken, P. (2007), Global Shift: Mapping the Changing Contours of the World Economy, 5. Baskı, Routledge.
DPT (2007), 9.Kalkınma Planı (2007-2013), Otomotiv Sanayi Özel İhtisas Komisyonu Raporu, T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı, Ankara.
Eden, L., Levitas, E. ve Martinez R. J. (1996), “The Production, Transfer and Spillover of Technology: Comparing Large and Small Multinationals as Technology Producers”, Small Business Economics 9: 53–66.
Ekmekçi, U. (2009), Determinants of Knowledge Transfer from Foreign Direct Investments to Local Supplier Firms: The Case of Turkish Automotive Industry, Basılmamış doktora tezi, Department of Management Engineering, Institute of Science and Technology, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul.
Erdil, E. ve Pamukçu, T. (2010), “Türkiye ekonomisinde yabancı sermayeli firmaların Ar-Ge etkinliklerinin analizi”, Türkiye Uluslararası Yatırımcılar Derneği (YASED) için hazırlanan rapor, 350 sayfa.
Evenson, R.E. ve Westphal L.E. (1995), “Technological change and technology strategy”, J. Behrman ve T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, cilt III, , Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 2211-2299.
Fernandes, A. M. (2007), “Trade policy, trade volumes, and plant-level productivity in Colombian manufacturing industries” Journal of International Economics, 71(1): 52–71.
Ghosh, S. (2002), “Characteristics and Determinants of Technology Transfer to Developing Countries”, Basılmamış doktora tezi, Boston University, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
Giroud, A. (2003), Transnational corporations, technology, and economic development: backward linkages and knowledge transfer in South-East Asia, Cheltenham, UK; Northhampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
Glass, A. J. ve Saggi, K. (1998), “International technology transfer and the technology gap”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 55: 369-398.
Görg, H. ve Greenaway, D. (2003), “Much Ado About Nothing? Do Domestic Firms Really Benefit from Foreign Direct Investment? ”, IZA Discussion Paper Series, No. 944.
Greene, W. H. (2008), Econometric Analysis, 6. baskı, Prentice Hall, New York.
Griffith, R., Huergo, E., Mairesse, J., ve Peters, B. (2006), “Innovation and Productivity Across Four European Countries”, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 2, 483–498.
Grosse, R. (1996), “International Technology Transfer in Services”, Journal of International Business Studies, 27, 781-800.
Humphrey, J. ve Memedovic, O. (2003), The Global Automotıve Industry Value Chaın: What Prospects for Upgrading by Developing Countries, UNIDO, Vienna.
Jaffe, A., Manuel, T. ve Rebecca, H. (1993), "Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations", Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108, 577-98.
Katrak, H. (1989), “Imported technologies and R&D in a newly industrializing country”, Journal of Development Economics, 31, 123-139.
Katrak, H. (1990), “Imports of technology and the technological effort of Indian enterprises”, World Development, 18, 371-381.
Katrak, H. (1997), “Developing countries’ imports of technology, in-house technological capabilities and efforts: An analysis of the Indian experience”, Journal of Development Economics, 53, 67-83.
Keller, W. ve Yeaple, S. R. (2003), “Multinational enterprises, international trade, and productivity growth: Firm level evidence from the United States”, NBER Working Paper Series No 9504, National Bureau of Economics Research, Cambridge, MA.
Keller, W. (2004), “International Technology Diffusion”, Journal of Economic Literature, 42, 752-782.
Krugman, P. (1979), “A Model of Innovation, Technology Transfer, and the World Distribution of Income”, The Journal of Political Economy, 87, 253-266.
Larrain, B. F., Calva L. L. ve Clare, A. R. (2000), “Intel: A case study of Foreign Direct Investment in Central America”, working paper 58, Center Int. Develop., Harvard University.
Lee, C. (2008), “Innovation, Productivity and Exports: Firm-Level Evidence from Malaysia”, Nottingham University Business School University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Working Paper Series Vol. 2008-06, March 2008.
Lenger, A. ve Taymaz, E. (2006), “To innovate or to transfer? A study on spillovers and foreign firms in Turkey”, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 16, 137–153.
Liao, T. F. (1994), Interpreting Probability Models: Logit, Probit, And Other Generalized Linear Models, Quantitative applications in the social sciences, Sage University Papers Series, Sage Publications, California.
Long, J.S: (2001), Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables, Advanced Quantitative Techniques in the Social Science Series, Sage Publications, California.
MacGarvie, M. (2006), “Do firms learn from international trade?” Review of Economics and Statistics, 88, 46–60.
Maddala, G.S. (1983), Limited-Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, Econometric Society Monographs, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Muendler, M. A. (2004), “Trade, technology, and productivity: A study of Brazilian manufacturers”, 1986– 1998. CESifo Working Paper No. 1148, Ifo Institute for Economic Research, Munich.
Niosi, J., Saviotti, P., Bellon, B. ve Crow, M. (1993), “National systems of innovation: in search of a workable concept”, Technology in Society, 15, 207-227.
Omuzlu, Y. (2008), Technology spillovers through foreign direct investment in the Turkish manufacturing sector, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İktisat Bölümü, ODTÜ.
Pack, H. (2005), “Econometric Versus Case Study Approaches to Technology Transfer”, Hoekman, B. ve Javorcik, B. S. (ed.), Global Integration and Technology Transfer, Washington, Palgrave Macmillan and the World Bank, 29-50.
Pamukçu, T. (2003), “Trade liberalization and innovation decisions of firms: Lessons from post-1980 Turkey'', World Development, 31,1443-1458.
Pamukçu, T, Bertinelli ve E. Strobl (2006), “Technology Spillovers due to Foreign Ownership and Productivity of Domestic Firms: Analyzing the Evidence”, Selected Papers from the 13th International Conference of ERF, Economic Research Forum (ERF), Mısır, 187-230.
Pamukçu, T. ve Taymaz E. (2009), “Spillovers in the MENA region: The Case of Turkey”, Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey (ERF) Working Paper Series, No 463, 116 pages.
Ramachandran, V. (1993) “Technology transfer, ownership, and investment in human capital”, Review of Economics and Statistics 75, 664-670.
Romer, P. (1986), “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth”, Journal of Political Economy, 94, 1002–1037.
Romer, P. (1990), “Endogeneous Technological Change”, Journal of Political Economy, 98, 71–102.
Saggi, K. (2005), “Foreign Direct Investment, Linkages, and Technology Spillovers”, Ed. by: Hoekman, B. ve Javorcik, B. S., Global Integration and Technology Transfer (içinde), Washington DC 51-66.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1934), The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest and the Business Cycle, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Smeets, R. (2008), “Collecting the Pieces of the FDI Knowledge Spillovers Puzzle”, The World Bank Research Observer, 23, 107-138.
Solow, R. (1956), “A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70, 65–94.
Sönmez, A. ve Pamukçu, T. (2010), “Foreign direct investment and productivity spillovers in the Turkish manufacturing industry: An econometric analysis with enterprise-level data for the period 2003-2006”, 4. Uluslararası Sanayi Dinamikleri, İnovasyon Politikaları ve Büyüme Konferansı’na sunulan tebliğ, 21-22 Mayıs, İzmir.
Tanaka, H., Iwaisako, T. ve Futagami, K. (2007), “Dynamic analysis of innovation and international transfer of technology through licensing”, Journal of International Economics, 73, 189–212.
Taymaz, E., Voyvoda, E. ve Yılmaz, K. (2004), “Türkiye İmalat Sanayinde Yapısal Dönüşüm, Üretkenlik ve Teknolojik Değisme Dinamikleri”, ERC Working Papers in Economics, No 08/04, Ankara.
TAYSAD (Taşıt Araçları Yan Sanayicileri Derneği), www.taysad.org.tr
Techakanont, K. (2002), A Study on Inter-firm Technology Transfer in the Thai Automobile Industry, Basılmamış doktora tezi , Japonya: Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University.
Techakanont, K. ve Terdudomtham. T. (2004) “Evolution of Inter-firm Technology Transfer and Technological Capability Formation of Local Parts Firms in the Thai Automobile Industry”, Journal of Technology Innovation, 12, 2-20.
Teece, D. J. (1977), “Technology Transfer by Multinational Firms: The Resource Cost of Transferring Technological Know-How”, The Economic Journal, 87, 242-261.
Tung, R. L. (1994), “Human Resource Issues and Technology Transfer”, International Journal of Human Resource Management 5, 808–825.
UNCTAD (1997), Transnational Corporations, Market Structure and Competition Policy, World Investment Report, United Nations, New York.
UNCTAD (2003), FDI Policies for Development: National and International Perspectives, World Investment Report, United Nations, New York.
UNCTAD (2005), World Investment Report 2005: Transnational Corporations and the Internationalization of R&D, United Nations, New York.
Verbeek, M. (2008), A Guide to Modern Econometrics, 3. baskı, John Wiley, Sussex.
Wasti, N. S., Kozan, M. K. ve Kuman, A. (2006), “Buyer-supplier relationships in the Turkish automotive industry”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26, 947-970.
Wasti, S. N., Kozan, M. K. ve Çınar, A. K. (2009), "Ana Sanayi Firmalarının Yan Sanayiye Yaptıkları İlişkiye Has Yatırımın Öncülleri: Türk Otomotiv Sanayinde bir Araştırma”, ODTÜ Gelişme Dergisi, 35, 315-340.