Kirdar, Murat G. and Dayioglu, Meltem and Koc, Ismet (2012): Does longer compulsory education equalize educational attainment by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background?
Download (417kB) | Preview
This study examines the effects of the extension of compulsory schooling from 5 to 8 years in Turkey—which substantially increased the grade completion rates not only during the new compulsory years but also during the high school years—on the equality of educational outcomes among various subpopulations. While longer compulsory schooling decreases the educational gap for most subgroups—in particular, the gender gap in rural areas, the ethnic gap among men in both urban and rural areas, and the ethnic gap among women in urban areas; at the same time, it increases the gender gap in urban areas as well as the ethnic gap among women in rural areas. For instance, the gap in the 8th grade completion rate between ethnic Turkish and Kurdish women in rural areas increases from 22.5 to 44.6 percentage points for the 1989 birth-cohort. These findings suggest that the differences among subpopulations in the change in schooling costs (both monetary and psychic) during the new compulsory schooling years, in the costs of non-compliance with the policy, in labor force participation, and in the drop-out behavior in earlier grades are the key underlying factors.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Does longer compulsory education equalize educational attainment by gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background?|
|Keywords:||Compulsory Schooling, Gender, Ethnicity, Parental Schooling, Regression Discontinuity|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I21 - Analysis of Education
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J15 - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants ; Non-labor Discrimination
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I28 - Government Policy
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J16 - Economics of Gender ; Non-labor Discrimination
|Depositing User:||Murat Kirdar|
|Date Deposited:||10. Jul 2012 20:36|
|Last Modified:||11. Mar 2015 12:10|
Acemoğlu Daron and Joshua Angrist. 2001. “How Large are Human-Capital Externalities? Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Laws.” In NBER Macroeconomics Annual, Volume 15, pp. 9-74. eds. Ben S. Bernanke and Kenneth Rogoff. MIT Press, Cambridge.
Ahmed, A.U. and C. del Ninno. 2002. “The Food for Education Program in Bangladesh: An Evaluation of Its Impact on Educational Attainment and Food Security.” Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion paper No.138, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
Angrist, J.D. and A.B. Krueger. 1991. “Does Compulsory Schooling Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?” Quarterly Journal of Economics 106(4): 979-1014.
Aud, S., Hussar, W., Kena, G., Bianco, K., Frohlich, L., Kemp, J., Tahan, K. (2011). The Condition of Education 2011 (NCES 2011-033). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Becker, G. 1975. Human Capital. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Behrman, J.R., P. Sengupta and P. Todd. “Progressing through PROGRESA: An Impact Assessment of a School Subsidy Experiment in Rural Mexico.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 54(1): 237-275.
Black, S., P. Devereux, and K. Salvanes, K. 2008. “Staying in the Classroom and Out of the Maternity Ward? The Effect of Compulsory Schooling Laws on Teenage Births.” Economic Journal 118: 1025-1054.
Brunello G., M. Fort, and G. Weber. 2009. “Changes in Compulsory Schooling, Education and the Distribution of Wages in Europe.” Economic Journal 119: 516-539.
Card, D. 1999. “The Causal Effect of Education on Earnings.” In Handbook of Labor Economics, O. Ashenfelter and D. Card (eds.), North Holland Publishing, Amsterdam. Vol. 3A, Chapter 30, pp. 1801-1863.
Chou, S.Y., J.T. Liu, M. Grossman and T. Joyce. 2010. “Parental Education and Child Health: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in Taiwan.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2(1): 33-61.
Dayıoğlu, Meltem. 2005. “Patterns of Change in Child Labour and Schooling in Turkey: The Impact of Compulsory Schooling.” Oxford Development Studies 33: 195-210.
Dayıoğlu, Meltem, Murat G. Kırdar and Aysıt Tansel. 2009. “Impact of Sibship Size, Birth Order and Sex Composition on School Enrollment in Urban Turkey.” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 71(3):399-426.
DHS. 2003, 2008. Demographic and Health Surveys Data: Turkey. Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe University.
Duflo, Ester. 2001. “Schooling and labor market consequences of school construction in Indonesia.” American Economic Review 91(4): 795-813.
Eckstein, Zvi and Itzhak Zilcha. 2002. “The Effects of Compulsory Schooling on Growth, Income Distribution and Welfare.” Journal of Public Economics 54(3): 339-359.
Glewwe, Paul. 2002. “Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes.” Journal of Economic Literature XL, pp. 436-482.
Glewwe, Paul and Ana Lucia Kassouf. 2012. “The Impact of the Bolsa Escola/Familia Conditional Cash Transfer Program on Enrollment, Dropout Rates and Grade Promotion in Brazil.” Journal of Development Economics 97(2): 505-517.
Glick, Peter. 2008. “Policy Impacts on Schooling Gender Gaps in Developing Countries: The Evidence and a Framework for Interpretation.” Working paper.
Grant, M.J. and J.R. Behrman. 2010. “Gender Gaps in Educational Attainment in Less Developed Countries.” Population and Development Review, 36: 71–89.
Hall, Gillette and Harry Anthony Patrinos (eds.). 2005. Indigenous Peoples, Poverty and Human Development in Latin America 1994–2004. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Haveman, R. H. and B. L. Wolfe. 1984. “Schooling and Economic Well-being: The Role of Nonmarket Effects,” Journal of Human Resources, 19(3): 377- 407
Haveman R.H. and Wolfe, B.L. 1995. “The Determinants of Children’s Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings”, Journal of Economic Literature 33: 1829-1878.
Herz, B., and G. Sperling. 2004. “What Works in Girls’ Education: Evidence and Policies from the Developing World.” Council on Foreign Relations.
King, E.M. and Hill, M. A. (eds.) 1993. Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Policies, World Bank, Baltimore.
Kırdar, Murat G. 2009. “Explaining Ethnic Disparities in School Enrollment in Turkey.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 57(2): 297-333.
Kırdar, Murat G., M. Dayıoğlu, and İsmet Koç. 2010. ‘Türkiye’de Zorunlu Eğitimin Eğitim Çıktıları, Evlenme Yaşı ve Doğurganlık Üzerindeki Etkisi.’ Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council, Project Report No: 108K251. January 2010, Ankara.
Kemptner, Daniel, Hedrik Jurges, and Steffen Reinhold. 2011. “Changes in Compulsory Schooling and the Causal Effect of Education on Health: Evidence from Germany.” Journal of Health Economics 30: 340-354.
Lam, D. and Duryea, S. 1999. “Effects of Schooling on Fertility, Labor Supply and Investment in Children, with Evidence from Brazil”, Journal of Human Resources, 34 (1), 161-192
Lleras-Muney A. 2002. “Were Compulsory Attendance and Child Labor Laws Effective? An Analysis from 1915 to 1939” Journal of Law and Economics 45(2): 401-435.
Lleras-Muney A. 2005. “The Relationship between Education and Adult Mortality in the United States.” Review of Economic Studies 72(1): 189-221.
Lochner, L. and E. Moretti. 2004. “The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports.” American Economic Review 94(1): 155-189.
Orazem, Peter F. and Elizabeth M. King. 2008. “Schooling in Developing Countries: The Roles of Supply, Demand and Government Policy.” In Handbook of Development Economics, J. Strauss and D. Thomas (eds.) Vol. 4: 3475-3559.
Oreopoulos, P. 2006. “Estimating Average and Local Treatment Effects of Education When Compulsory Schooling Laws Really Matter.” American Economic Review 96(1): 152-75.
Oreopoulos, P. 2007. “Do Dropouts Drop out too Soon? Wealth, Health and Happiness from Compulsory Schooling.” Journal of Public Economics 91: 2213-2229.
Oreopoulos, P. 2009. “Would More Compulsory Schooling Help Disadvantaged Youth? Evidence from Recent Changes to School-Leaving Laws.” In The Problems of Disadvantaged Youth: An Economic Perspective, Jonathan Gruber (ed.), University of Chicago Press. pp. 85-112.
Oreopolulos, P., M. Page, and A.H. Stevens. 2006. “The Intergenerational Effects of Compulsory Schooling.” Journal of Labor Economics 24(4): 729-760.
Osili, U.O. and B.T. Long. 2008. “Does Female Schooling Reduce Fertility? Evidence from Nigeria.” Journal of Development Economics 87: 57-75.
Schultz, T.P. 1993. “Return to Women’s Education”, in King, E.M. and Hill, M.A. Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Policies. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 51-99.
Schultz, T. 1963. The Economic Value of Education. New York: Columbia University Press.
Skoufias, E. 2001. “PROGRESA and Its Impacts on the Human Capital and Welfare of Households in Rural Mexico: A Synthesis of the Results of an Evaluation by IFPRI.” International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC.
Smits, J. and A. Gündüz-Hoşgör. 2006. “Effects of Family Background Characteristics on Educational Participation in Turkey.” International Journal of Educational Development 26: 545-560.
Spence, M. 1973. “Job Market Signaling.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 87: 355-374.
Spohr, CA. 2003. “Formal Schooling and Workforce Participation in a Rapidly Developing Economy: Evidence from “Compulsory” Junior High School in Taiwan.” Journal of Development Economics 70(2): 291-327.
Tansel, Aysıt. 2002. “Determinants of School Attainment of Boys and Girls in Turkey: Individual, Household and Community Factors.” Economics of Education Review 21: 455-470.
Tunalı, İnsan. 1996. “Education and Work: Experiences of 6-14 Year-Old Children in Turkey.” In Education and the Labour Market in Turkey, ed. Tuncer Bulutay. SIS: Ankara.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 2006. Global Education Digest 2006—Comparing Education Statistics Across the World. Montreal, Quebec: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
Van Kippersluis, H., O. O’Donnell and E. van Doorslaer. 2011. “Long-Run Returns to Education: Does Schooling Lead to an Extended Old Age.” Journal of Human Resources 46(4): 695-721.