Parsisson, David and Hanley, N and Spash, Clive L. (1994): Nitrate pollution due to agriculture, project report No.2: cross compliance of agricultural and environmental policies.
Download (2MB) | Preview
Developing and using the concept of 'cross compliance' this report provides an examination of the primary and secondary effects of agri-environmental policies. Cross-compliance is applied to a number of agri-environmental policies; CAP reform, the 'accompanying measures' of CAP reform and a selection of member state agri-environmental policies. The development of the concept of cross compliance provides a useful tool to perform evaluation on the effectiveness and efficiency of general policy instruments, but specifically policy scenarios designed to reduce nitrate pollution of groundwater due to agriculture and goes some way to help answer policy questions on which mechanism may achieve a wide range of performance criteria.
Cross-compliance can be applied at different levels of the policy and can be used to categorise policies into a number of sets according to specified criteria. CAP reform policies designed to control supply, although having positive environmental effects, are not as successful at achieving environmental objectives in comparison to the 'accompanying measures' elements of CAP reform. However a number of the policies from the accompanying measures package, for example the protection of rare breeds and the shelter planting, have very specific and narrow aims and so do not achieve large positive cross compliance for reductions in nitrate pollution. The analysis also deals with a number of other policies, some agricultural in basis, such as the Less Favoured Areas policy, which scored highly in achieving income redistribution to the targeted group but failed in achieving positive environmental effects.
A number of useful trends have been identified and these may be useful for formulating future agri-environmental policy in terms of achieving higher degrees of cross-compliance. It is recognised that this technique would be usefully expanded and that it warrants further investigation in order that a quantitative valuation of positive and negative cross-compliance could eventually be attached to each policy.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Nitrate pollution due to agriculture, project report No.2: cross compliance of agricultural and environmental policies|
|Keywords:||Nitrates; farming; pollution control; European regulation; common agricultural policy,; cross compliance|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q52 - Pollution Control Adoption and Costs ; Distributional Effects ; Employment Effects
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q53 - Air Pollution ; Water Pollution ; Noise ; Hazardous Waste ; Solid Waste ; Recycling
R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics > R5 - Regional Government Analysis
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q1 - Agriculture > Q18 - Agricultural Policy ; Food Policy
|Depositing User:||Clive L. Spash|
|Date Deposited:||11. Jul 2012 21:53|
|Last Modified:||18. Feb 2013 01:48|
Baldock D., Cox G., Lowe P., and Winter M. (1990). Environmentally Sensitive Areas: Incrementalism or Reform? Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 6, No.2, pp. 143-162.
Bertrand J.M., Hu10t 1.M. (1990). Farms in Mountainous and Less Favoured Areas of the Community. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.
Colman D., Crabtree B., Froud J., and O'Carroll L, (1992). Comparative Effectiveness of Conservation Mechanisms. Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, University of Manchester.
Commission of the European Communities.(1993). The Agricultural Situation in the Community 1992. CEC, Brussels.
Elbersen B.S. (1993). 'In search of an evaluation method for EC agricultural policy in the Less Favoured Areas.' Internal note 412, Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (LEI-DLO), Den Haag, Netherlands.
Ewins A., Roberts B. (1992). The Countryside Premium Scheme for Set-aside Land. In Clarke, (Ed.). Set-aside. British Crop Protection Monograph 50, pp. 229-234.
Harvey D.R. (1992). 'GAIT, The CAP Reforms and the Future of British Agriculture.' Paper presented to the Agricultural Society, The University of Newcastle upon Tyne, October 1992.
MAFF (a) (1993). Press Release. 'Agriculture and England's Environment.' 100/93, 26 March 1993.
MAFF (b) (1993). Solving the Nitrate Problem: Progress in Research and Development. HMSO.
MAFF (c) (1993). Pilot Nitrate Sensitive Areas scheme: Report on the first three years. MAFF, London.
Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (1991). Environmental Policy: How to apply economic instruments. OECD, Paris.
Potter C., (1990). Conservation under a European Farm Survival Policy. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol 6, No.1, pp. 1-7.
Potter C., Cook H., and Norman C., (1993). The Targeting of Rural Environmental Policies: an Assessment of Agri-environmental Schemes in the UK. Journal of Environmental Planningand Management, Vol 36, No.2, pp. 199-216.
R.S.P.B. (a) (1991). 'Environmental Aspects of Support for Hill Farming-Comments prepared by the R.S.P.B.' RSPB, Sandy, Bedfordshire
R.S.P.B. (b) (1991). 'A Future for Environmentally Sensitive Farming-RSPB Submission to the UK Review of Environmentally Sensitive Areas 1991 '. RSPB, Sandy, Bedfordshire
Rude S., Frederiksen B.S. (1994). 'National and EC Nitrate Policies - agricultural aspects for 7 EC countries'. Report 77, Statens Jordbrugokonomiske Institut, Denmark.
Schleef K-H., Kleinhanss W. (1994) . 'Mineral Balances in Agriculture in the European Union Part I: the Regional Leve'l. Institute of Farm Economics, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Braunschweig, Germany.
Schulze Pal L. (1993). 'Regional und betrieblich differnzierte Untersuchungen uber Akzeptanz, Motivation und wirtschaftliche Folgen einer Umstellung auf okologischen Landbau 1m Rahmen des Extensivierungsprogrammes.' Arbeitsbericht 2/93 aus dem Institut fUr Betriebswitschaft der Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landwirtschaft Braunschweig-Volkenrode (FAL), Braunschweig, Germany.
Spash C.L., Simpson I.A. (1992). 'Protecting Sites of Special Scientific Interest: Intrinsic and Utilitarian Values'. Discussion Paper 13/92, Department of Economics, University of Stirling.
Strutt and Parker (1992). 'CAP Reform - an explanatory guide'. Strutt and Parker Agents.
Turner R.K. (1993) . 'Economic incentive instruments: an overview.' CSERGE conference paper, December 1993.
Willis K., Garrod G., Saunders C., Whitby M., (1993). 'Assessing Methodologies to Value the Benefits of Environmentally Sensitive Areas'. Working Paper 39, CCU, Newcastle upon Tyne.
Wulff H. (1992). Agrarian Land Law in Denmark. In Grossman M.R., Brussward W. (ed.) Agrarian Land Law in the Western World. CAB International, Wallingford.