Munich Personal RePEc Archive

Labour out migration from rice based cropping system: A case of Bihar, India

Kumar, Abhay and Singh, R.K.P. and Singh, K.M. and Kumar, Anjani (2014): Labour out migration from rice based cropping system: A case of Bihar, India.


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Migration has been a recurrent phenomenon since the dawn of human history. Though its form has changed but it remains a dominant event in the global social system. In modern days also people migrate from underdeveloped areas to the developed ones in search of better opportunities. A number of social, cultural, economic, spatial, climatic, demographic factors induce migration, however, the economic factors are considered as the primary reasons for inducing migration. Migration of male labour force from Bihar has increased during last two decades. It was observed that the youngsters are more prone to migration and most of them are migrating to urban centers for non-farm work. Migration helped more rational use of two critical inputs, labour and irrigation in rice production on migrant households. The migration seems to have helped in judicious use of human labour at native place due to migration of surplus labour force for gainful employment to destination of migration. Remittances have been utilized for meeting consumption needs, improved livelihood, better education to children and better health care facilities. Migrant households also preferred to save money to meet their requirements in unforeseen situations. It can thus be inferred that migration may be one of risk-coping strategies for the weaker sections of the society and has inculcated the saving habits among migrant households. The allocation of remittances on agricultural inputs could have increased if proper infrastructure facilities were present in rural areas for faster dissemination of modern agricultural technology for increasing agricultural production. Analysis of determinants of migration revealed that a male member of lower caste with larger size of land and larger number of dependents is more prone to migration in Bihar. The caste barrier for migration has weakened but still persists; however, size of farm is no more taboo for migration.

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