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Urban Transport Pollution: Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Liddle, Brantley (2013): Urban Transport Pollution: Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Published in: International Journal for Sustainable Transportation , Vol. 9, No. DOI: 10.1080/15568318.2013.814077 (2015): pp. 502-508.

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An inverted-U relationship between GDP per capita and three urban transport-related emissions is tested (using data from 84 cities). Per capita urban transport-related emissions of CO, VHC, and NOx increase and then decline at observed income levels—a result driven by a similar inverted-U relationship between income and emissions technology (i.e., emissions per passenger-km). However, for urban transport energy consumed, the estimated turning point was well beyond the sample bounds. Passenger-km per capita and car ownership both rise, and public transport’s share of those passenger-km falls monotonically with income.

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