Mariam, Yohannes and Lam, David and Barre, Mike (1998): Integrated Assessment Modeling in Canada: The Case of Acid Rain.
Download (281kB) | Preview
In the past, environmental decision making has been based on analysis of policy options with respect to emission reduction, deposition or concentration of pollutants and the design of preventive strategies using disparate single-model and discipline results. It was impossible to obtain optimal solution to environmnetal problems because it is difficult to conduct a coherent, systematic and sound analysis of environmental problems using a single disciplinary model. Thus, a need arises for an integrated approach in environmental policy making.
The trend in environmental management is a move from single pollutant/single-effect to multi-pollutant/multi-effect approach and to the inclusion of socioeconomic issues for the purposes of determining the interaction of the environment with the economy. Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) enables us to examine these kinds of issues by creating logical and scientific relationship between the functioning of various ecosystems and the manner in which they respond to external stimuli. Recognizing the crucial role that an integrative approach could play in the development of sound environmental decision making, Environment Canada and other government agencies have jointly participated in the development of IAM. Using data on emissions, depositions, source-receptor matrix, costs of emission abatement, models describing the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, IAM can be used to identify optimal emission reduction strategies that benefit both the economy and ecology.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how economic aspects of emission abatement can be incorporated into IAM using acid rain as a case. The present study compared findings of optimal abatement strategies when economic abatement costs are included and when they are not. The findings indicate that i) a strong long-term commitment is required to provide 100% proetction and allow the rejuvenation of acidified lakes, ii) major reductions in emissions of SO2 are still required from the USA, iii) inter-regional trading with the USA can play a major role in reducing emission of SO2 , and iv) polluters, as well as the society, would be better-off when emission abatement strategies incorporate abatement costs than when not. This is particularly important in ensuring the integration of the economy with environment, and the attainment of sustainable development.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Integrated Assessment Modeling in Canada: The Case of Acid Rain|
|Keywords:||single pollutant/single-effect; multi-pollutant/multi-effect; acid rain; Canada; long-range transport; air pollutants; acid deposition; North America; sources-receptors; emissions; cost functions; SO2; control technologies; Integrated Assessment Modelling; USA|
|Subjects:||Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q58 - Government Policy
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q53 - Air Pollution ; Water Pollution ; Noise ; Hazardous Waste ; Solid Waste ; Recycling
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q51 - Valuation of Environmental Effects
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q4 - Energy > Q48 - Government Policy
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q57 - Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services ; Biodiversity Conservation ; Bioeconomics ; Industrial Ecology
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q55 - Technological Innovation
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q52 - Pollution Control Adoption and Costs ; Distributional Effects ; Employment Effects
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics > Q56 - Environment and Development ; Environment and Trade ; Sustainability ; Environmental Accounts and Accounting ; Environmental Equity ; Population Growth
Q - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics ; Environmental and Ecological Economics > Q5 - Environmental Economics
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C6 - Mathematical Methods ; Programming Models ; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling > C61 - Optimization Techniques ; Programming Models ; Dynamic Analysis
|Depositing User:||Yohannes Mariam|
|Date Deposited:||04. Nov 2006|
|Last Modified:||19. Feb 2013 17:23|
1. Morgan, M.G. and H. Dowlatabadi. Climatic Change, 1996, 34, 3-4, 337-368. 2. Parson, E.A. and K. Fisher Vanden, Searching for Integrated Assessment: A Preliminary Investigation of Methods, Models, and Projects in the Integrated Assessment of Global Climatic Change. Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN).University Center, Mich. 1995.
3. Risbey, J., M. Kandlikar, and A. Patwardhan. Climatic Change, 1996, 34, 3-4, 369-395. 4. Rotmans, J., Van Asselt, M. Climate change, 1996, 34, 3-4, 327-336. 5. Rotmans, J., M. Hulme, and T.E. Downing. Global Environmental Change, 1994, 4 (2): 97 124.
6. Forrester, J.W., 1971. World Dynamics.Wright-Allen Press, Cambridge, Mass. 7. Brunner, R.D. 1996. Climate Change, 32:121-147. 8. Alcamo, J., G.J.J. Kreileman, M. S. Krol, and G. Zuidema. 1994. "Modeling the Global Society biosphere climate System: Part 1: Model Description and Testing." In IMAGE 2.0: Integrated Modeling of Global Climate Change, ed. J. Alcamo. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
9. Alcamo, J., R. Shaw, and L. Hordijk, eds. 1990. The RAINS Model of Acidification: Science and Strategies in Europe. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 10. Ball, M., and H. Dowlatabadi. 1995. "The Role of Aerosols in Climate Change: Results from an Integrated Assessment Model (ICAM 2.0)." Pittsburgh, Pa.: Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Engineering and Public Policy. 11. Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN). 1995. Thematic Guide to Integrated Assessment Modeling of Climate Change. University Center, Mich. 12. Lam, D.C.L., C.W. Mayfield, D.A. Swayne and K. Hopkins. 1994. J. Biol. Systems 2:499-517. 13. Lam, D.C.L., W.G. Booty, W.G., Wong,I., Kay, D., and Kerby, J. The RAISON decision support system: examples of applications. National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Contribution No. 95 151, 1995 14. Lam, D.C.L., Puckett, K.J., Wong, I., Moran, M.D., Fenech, G., Jeffries, D.S., Olson, M.P., Whelpdale, D.M., McNicol, D., Mariam, Y.K.G., and Minns, C.K., Water Quality Res. J. Canada. 33, 1, 1-17.
15. IPCC 1996. Integrated assessment of climate change: An overview and comparison of approaches and results. In Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change: Working Group III Report. In press. 16. Rubin, E.S. 1991. J.of the Air and Waste Management Association, 1991, 41: 914 21. 17. Edmonds, J.A., M.A. Wise, and C. MacCracken. 1994. Advanced Energy Technologies and Climate Change: An Analysis Using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). PNL 9798, UC 402. Richland, Wash.: Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
18. Maddison, D. 1994b. "A Cost Benefit Analysis of Slowing Climate Change." Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE). London: University College London. 19. Hulme, M., S.C.B. Raper, and T.M.L. Wigley. 1994."An Integrated Framework to Address Climate Change (ESCAPE) and Further Development of the Global and Regional Climate Modules (MAGICC)." In Integrative Assessment of Mitigation, Impacts, and Adaptation to Climate Change, ed. N. Nakicenovic, W.D. Nordhaus, R. Richels, and F.L. Toth. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) Collaborative Paper, CP 94 9. Laxenburg, Austria: IIASA. 20. Nordhaus, W.D., and Z. Yang. 1995. RICE: A Regional Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Optimal Climate Change Policy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 21. Energy Modeling Forum. 1995. Second Round Study Design for EMF 14: Integrated Assessment for Climate Change. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University.
22. Cohen, S.J. 1995. An interdisciplinary assessment of climate change on northern ecosystems: The Mackenzie Basin Impact Study. In Human Ecology and Climate Change: People and Resources in the Far North, eds. D.L. Peterson and D.R. Johnson, 301 316.Washington, D.C.:Taylor and Francis.
23. Legge, A.H., and Krupa, S.V. (eds). 1990. Acidic Deposition: Sulphur and Nitrogen Oxides. Lewis Publishers, Inc. Michigan, U.S.A. 24. Environment Canada, 1995. Air Emissions: Baseline Forecast, 1990-2010, Pollution Data Branch. March.
25. Environment Canada, 1990. The 1990 Canadian Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants & Acid Deposition Assessment report: Part 1, Executive Summary; & Part 4, Aquatic Effects. 26. Mariam, Y. 1994. Trend analysis of energy use and emission of NOx for eastern Canada. Mimeo. Economic Analysis Branch, Environment Canada. December.