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Behavioralizing the Black-Scholes Model

Siddiqi, Hammad (2015): Behavioralizing the Black-Scholes Model.


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In this article, I incorporate the anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic into the Black-Scholes option pricing framework, and show that this is equivalent to replacing the risk-free rate with a higher interest rate. I show that the price from such a behavioralized version of the Black-Scholes model generally lies within the no-arbitrage bounds when there are transaction costs. The behavioralized version explains several phenomena (implied volatility skew, countercyclical skew, skew steepening at shorter maturities, inferior zero-beta straddle return, and superior covered-call returns) which are anomalies in the traditional Black-Scholes framework. Six testable predictions of the behavioralized model are also put forward.

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