Husain, Zakir and Dutta, Mousumi and Ghosh, Sriparna (2011): Contraceptive use among illiterate women in India: does proximate illiteracy matter?
Download (492kB) | Preview
Illiterate women comprise a particularly vulnerable section of the community. They lack empowerment, are unable to voice their choice with respect to contraceptive use, and also lack access to health services. However, their lack of literacy may be compensated if their partners are literate. Contraceptive use of such illiterate women (proximate literates), may be higher than that of illiterate women whose partners too are illiterates (isolate illiterates). The study uses the third wave of the Demographic Health Survey data for India (2005-2006).The 34,108 currently married illiterate women for whom data is available in the Individual file was divided into two groups, based on whether their partners were literate. Current use of modern contraceptives was compared between these two groups for socio-economic and demographic correlates. This was followed by multivariate analysis based on a logit model. Current use of modern methods was regressed on a dummy representing whether the partner was literate, along with relevant control variables. The results of the All-India (Rural+Urban) and All-India (Rural) models indicated that literacy of partners did lead to a significantly higher level of use of modern contraceptive methods. For the urban sub-sample, however, the study failed to find any significant transmission of information from the literate partner to the respondents. Disaggregate-level analysis also revealed that such transmission was restricted to only specific situations and communities. The study argued that the results may be explained by: [a] Reluctance of the male partner to share information; [b] Lack of information about family planning methods, even when there is communication; and [c] Presence of alternative channels of information reducing dependence of illiterate women on her partner. There should be an attempt to increase information of both partners through face to face interaction, rather than relying solely on public media. Simultaneously, women should be encouraged to develop contacts outside her household as this can reduce her dependence of partner for family planning related knowledge.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Contraceptive use among illiterate women in India: does proximate illiteracy matter?|
|Keywords:||Contraceptives, Literacy, Reproductive Health, India|
|Subjects:||J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J13 - Fertility ; Family Planning ; Child Care ; Children ; Youth
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I2 - Education and Research Institutions > I20 - General
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C3 - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models ; Multiple Variables > C35 - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models ; Discrete Regressors ; Proportions
|Depositing User:||Zakir Husain|
|Date Deposited:||09. May 2011 12:13|
|Last Modified:||16. Feb 2013 00:48|
Agarwal, B. (1994), A Field of One’s Own: Gender and Land Rights in South Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Agha, S. and Rossem, R. V. (2002), ‘Impact of Mass Media Campaigns on Intentions to Use The Female Condom in Tanzania’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 151-158.
Alagarajan, M. and Kulkarni, P. M. (2008), ‘Religious Differentials in Fertility in India: Is There Convergence?’, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 43, No. 48, (Nov. 29), pp. 44-53.
Arnold, F. (1992), ‘Sex Preference and Its Demographic and Health Implications’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 93-101.
Arnold, F. (1997), Gender Preferences for Children. DHS Comparative Studies no. 23, Macro International. Calverton, MD.
Arnold, F. (2001), ‘Son Preference in South Asia’, in Z.A. Sathar and J.F. Phillips, eds., Fertility Transition in South Asia. Clarendon: Oxford University Press, pp. 281-299,.
Arnold, F., Choe, M. K. and Roy, T. K. (1998), ‘Son Preference, the Family-building Process and Child Mortality in India’, Population Studies, vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 301-315.
Bardhan, P. K. (1974), ‘On life and death questions’, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 9, Special Number, pp. 32-34.
Bankole, A. and Singh, S. (1998), ‘Couples’ Fertility and Contraceptive Decision-Making In Developing Countries: Hearing the Man’s Voice, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 15-24.
Basu, A. M. (1992), Culture, the Status of Women, and Demographic Behaviour: Illustrated with the Case of India, Clarendon: Oxford University Press.
Basu, K., Narayan, A. and Ravallion, M. (2002), ‘Is literacy shared within households? Theory and Evidence for Bangladesh’, Labour Economics, vol. 8, pp. 649-665.
Basu, K., Foster, J. E. and Subramanian, S. (2000), ‘Isolated and Proximate Illiteracy: And Why These Concepts Matter in Measuring Literacy and Designing Education Programmes’, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 35, No. 1/2 (Jan. 8-14), pp. 35-39.
Basu, K. and Foster, J. E. (1998), ‘On Measuring Literacy’, The Economic Journal, vol. 108, No. 451, pp. 1733-1749.
Bawah, A. A., Akweongo, P., Simmons, R. and Phillips, J. F. (1999), ‘Women's fears and men's anxieties: The impact of family planning on gender relations in northern Ghana’, Studies in Family Planning, vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 54–66.
Becker, G. S. (1960), ‘An Economic Analysis of Fertility’, in Ansley J. Coale, ed., Demographic and economic change in developed countries. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 209-40.
Biddlecom, A. E., Casterline, J. B. and Perez, A. E. (1997), International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 108-115.
Blanc, A. (2001), ‘The effects of power in sexual relationships on sexual and reproductive health: an examination of the evidence’, Studies in Family Planning, vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 189–213.
Char, A., Saavala, M. and Kulmala, T. (2009), ‘Male Perceptions on Female Sterilization: A Community-Based Study in Rural Central India’, International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 131-138.
Caldwell, J. C. (1979), ‘Education as factor in mortality decline', Population Studies, vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 395-13.
Chapagain, M. (2005), ‘Masculine interest behind high prevalence of female contraceptive methods in rural Nepal’, Australian Journal of Rural Health, vol. 13, pp. 35-42
Dang, A. (1995), ‘Differentials in contraceptive use and method choice in Vietnam’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 21, pp. 2-5.
DeRose, L. F., Dodoo, F. N., Ezeh, A. C. and Owuor, T. O. (2004), ‘Does Discussion of Family Planning Improve Knowledge Of Partner’s Attitude Toward Contraceptives?’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 87-93.
Dutta, I. (2004), ‘Generalized Measures of Literacy’, Mathematical Social Sciences, vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 69-80.
Dutta, M. and Husain, Z. (2011), ‘Balancing the Present and the Future: A Study of Contraceptive Use in Calcutta’s Slums’, World Health and Population, vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 23-32.
Dyson, T. and Moore, M. (1983), ‘On kinship structure, female autonomy, and demographic behavior in India’, Population and Development Review, vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 35-60.
Ezeh, A. C. (1993), ‘The Influence of Spouses over each others contraceptive change in developing countries’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 100-109.
Filmer, D., Friedman, J. and Schady, N. (2008), Development, Mode4rnization, and Son Preference in Fertility Decisions, The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper No. 4716.
Foster, A. D. and Rozenzweig, M. R. (1996), ‘Technical change and human capital returns and investments evidence from the Green Revolution’, American Economic Review, vol. 86, pp. 931-53.
Gibson, J. (2001), ‘Literacy and Intrahousehold Externalities’, World Development, vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 155-166.
Godley, J. (2001), ‘Kinship Networks and Contraceptive Choice In Nang Rong, Thailand’, International Family Planning Perspectives, 2001, vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 4-10 & 41.
Grady, W. R. (1996), ‘Men’s perceptions of their roles and responsibilities regarding sex, contraception, and childrearing’. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp.221–226.
Green, S. E., Rich, T. A. and Nesman, E. G. (1985), ‘Beyond individual literacy: the role of shared literacy for innovation in Guatemala’, Human Organization, vol. 44, pp. 313-21.
Gubhaju, B. (2006), Understanding women’s contraceptive decision-making dynamics in Nepal, Unpublished dissertation: The Pennsylvania State University.
Guhbhaju, B. (2009), ‘The influence of wives’ and husbands’ education levels on contraceptive method choice in Nepal, 1996-2006’, International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 35(4):176-185.
Guilmoto, C. Z and Rajan, S. I. (2001): ‘Spatial Patterns of Fertility Transitions in Indian Districts’, Population and Development Review, vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 713-718.
Heckman, J. (1979), ‘Sample selection bias as a specification error’, Econometrica, vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 153–61.
Iverson, V. and Palmer-Jones, R. (2008), ‘Literacy Sharing, Assortative Mating, or What? Labour Market Advantages and Proximate Illiteracy Revisited’, Journal of Development Studies, vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 797-838.
Iyer, S. (2002), ‘Religion and the Decision to Use Contraception in India’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 711-722.
James, K. S. and Nair, S. B. (2005), ‘Accelerated Decline in Fertility in India since the 1980s: Trends among Hindus and Muslims’, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 40 (Jan. 29, 2005), pp. 375-383.
Jayaraman, A., Mishra V., and Arnold, F. (2009), ‘The relationship of family size and composition to fertility desires, contraceptive adoption and method choice in South Asia’, International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 29-38.
Jayarani Reddy, P. (1984), ‘Differential contraceptive use among the slum and non-slum dwellers: A study of Hyderabad city’, Perspectives & Issues, vol.7, No. 2, pp.115-128.
Kabir, M., Amin, R., Ahmed, A. U., and Chowdhury, J. (1994), ‘Factors Affecting Desired Family Size in Bangladesh’, Journal of Biosocial Science, vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 369–75.
Kamal, N. (2000), ‘The influence of husbands on contraceptive use by Bangladeshi women’, Health Policy and Planning, vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 43-51.
Khan, M. I. and Bairagi, R. (2001), ‘Contraceptive Use in Matlab with a Special Focus on Condoms: Socio-economic Correlates and Future Implications’, Journal of Health & Population in Developing Countries, vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 16-22
Kulkarni, P. M. and Alagarajan, M. (2005), ‘Population Growth, Fertility and Religion in India’, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 40 (Jan. 29, 2005), pp. 403-410.
Maddox, B. (2007), ‘Worlds Apart? Ethnographic Reflections on “Effective Literacy” and Intrahousehold Externalities’, World Development, vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 532-541.
Madhavan, S., Adams, A. and Simon, D. (2003), ‘Women’s Networks and the Social World Of Fertility Behavior’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 58-68.
Mari Bhat, P. N. and Francis Xavier, A. J. (2005), ‘Role of Religion in Fertility Decline: The Case of Indian Muslims’, Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 40 (Jan. 29, 2005), pp. 385-402.
Martin, T. C. and Juarez, F. (1995), ‘The Impact of Women’s Education on Fertility in Latin American: Searching for Explanations’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 21, pp. 52-57 & 80.
Mbizvo, M. and Adamchak, D.J. (1991), ‘Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Men in Zimbabwe’, Studies in Family Planning, vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 31-38.
Miller, B. D. (1981), The Endangered Sex: Neglect of Female Children in Rural North India. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Piotrow, P. T., Kincaid, D. L., Hindin, Lerrermaier, M. J., Kuseka, C. L., Silberman, I., T. et al. (1992), 'Changing men's attitudes and behaviour: the Zimbabwe Male Motivation Project’, Studies in Family Planning, vol. 23, No. ???, pp. 365–375.
Roy, T.K., Sinha, R.K., Koenig, M., Mohanty, S.K., and Patel, S.K. (2008), ‘Consistency and Predictive Ability of Fertility Preference Indicators: Longitudinal Evidence from Rural India’, International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 138-145.
Saha, U. R. and Bairagi, R. (2008), ‘Inconsistencies in the Relationship between Contraceptive Use and Fertility in Bangladesh’, International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 31-37.
Schoemaker, J. (2005), ‘Contraceptive Use Among the Poor in Indonesia’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 106-114.
Sen, A. (1993), ‘Economics and the Family’, in Patricia Uberoi (ed.), Family, Kinship and Marriage in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 452-63.
Shapiro, D. and Tambashe, B. O. (1994), ‘The impact of women's educatioon and employment on contraceptive use and abortion in Kinshasha, Zaire’, Studies in Family Planning, vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 96-110.
Singh, S., Darroch, J. E., Ashford, L. S. and Vlassoff, M. (2009), Adding it Up: The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Family Planning and Maternal and Newborn Health, New York: Guttmacher Institute and United Nations Population Fund.
Speizer, I. S., Whittle, L. and Carter, M. (2005), ‘Gender Relations and Reproductive Decision Making in Honduras’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 131-139.
Speizer, I.S.(1999). Are husbands a barrier to women’s family planning use? The case of Morocco, Social Biology, 46(1–2), 1–16. FORMAT
Valenti, P. (2002), Should We Be Concerned About the Distribution of Literacy across Households? An Axiomatic Investigation, Center for Analytic Economics (CAE), Working Paper, No. 02-15. Accessed on 24 April, 2011at http://www.arts.cornell.edu /econ/cae/Valenti_Literacy.pdf.
Vaughan, P. W., Regis, A. and St. Catherine, E. (2000), ‘Effects on an Entertainment-Education Radio Soap Opera on Family Planning And HIV Prevention in St. Lucia’, International Family Planning Perspectives, 2000, vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 148-157.
Visaria, L. (1994), ‘Deficit of Women, Son Preference and Demographic Transitions in India’, Paper presented at the International Symposium on Issues Related to Sex Preferences for Children in the Rapidly Changing Dynamics in Asia, (November) pp. 21–24, Seoul.
Watkins, S., Rutenber, N. and Wilkinson, D. (1997), Orderly theories, disorderly women, in G.W. Jones, R.M. Douglas, J.C. Caldwell and R.M. D’Sourza (ed) The Continuing Demographic Transition, New York, Oxford University Press, pp. 213-245.
Wegner, M. N., Landry E., Wilkinson, D. and Tzanis, J. (1998), ‘Men as Partners in Reproductive Health: From Issues to Action’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 24, No. 1, (March), pp. 38-42.
Weinberger, M. B. (1987), ‘The relationship between women's education and fertility: selected findings from the World Fertility Surveys’, International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 312, pp. 35-46.