Moreno, Frede (2004): Good governance in microcredit strategy for poverty reduction: focus on western Mindanao, Philippines.
Download (959kB) | Preview
The study argues for the integration of good governance principles in developing financially viable, effective and social equity-laden microcredit strategy for the impoverished agrarian reform beneficiaries in Western Mindanao. It particularly examines the program design and implementation strategies of the Enterprise Development Credit (EDC) sub-component of the Western Mindanao Community Initiatives Project (WMCIP). The study aims to provide lessons and insights for the planning and implementation of comprehensive and integrated Official Development Assistance (ODA)-funded government programs for poverty reduction and rural development.
The data and information were generated from combined descriptive and field studies covering a sample survey, group discussions, interviews, field visits and observations, official documents and other secondary sources. The respondents were officials and field personnel of WMCIP, line agencies, local government units (LGUs), and non-government organizations (NGOs); officers and members of cooperatives and people’s organizations (POs); religious leaders and informal moneylenders; and WMCIP beneficiaries.
Overall, microcredit is applicable only to the enterprising poor. The application of microcredit to other poverty groups who actually need subsidies and social safety nets would be a mistake. Thus, the EDC sub-component should be reformulated and revitalized following the program design of the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC). Its graduated strategy for helping the poor should be applied to the poverty pyramid by categorizing the WMCIP beneficiaries into four poverty groups: (1) micro-enterprise operators or the less poor, (2) enterprising or moderately poor, (3) laboring or very poor, and (4) poorest of the poor and most vulnerable or the ultra-poor.
The results further reveal that based on the poverty pyramid, the credit program designs of the Credit Assistance Program for Program Beneficiaries Development (CAP-PBD) and Quedan Rural Credit and Finance Corporation (QUEDANCOR) are readily applicable to the credit needs and financial capabilities of the enterprising poor. Beyond QUEDANCOR’s microcredit facility, the non- enterprising poor may actually opt for financial assistance from cooperatives or CAP- PBD to help finance their agriculture-and fishery-related production activities. On the other hand, the beneficiaries and their “not-so-strong” organizations that could not readily comply with the minimum credit standards should be provided with farm production subsidies, capability-building services and social safety nets under a special poverty alleviation project. This will enable them to pass minimum credit standards within a transition period of six months to one year.
In view of WMCIP’s EDC sub-component, the study further identifies the factors that enable or limit successful design and implementation of microcredit program and the provision of public support services. The enabling factors are vital to planning and decision-making that will eventually make the program effective and
appropriate. The limiting factors, on the other hand, facilitate the identification of strategies to manage and control credit risks and other circumstances that may hinder participation and adversely affect the attainment of objectives and desired outcomes.
On the whole, the application of good governance will improve program design and will make the implementation strategies acceptable to all organized stakeholders and individual end-beneficiaries. This will also improve the administrative capabilities of partner organizations and enable them to be effective and responsive to the differentiated poverty conditions, credit needs, preferences and financial capabilities of the impoverished target beneficiaries. These are consequently geared towards the attainment of the long-term vision of sustainable human development for the impoverished WMCIP beneficiaries.
The integration of good governance into microcredit intends to improve its program design, implementation strategies and processes. However, support services are actually necessary so as to simultaneously attain the desired social equity and financial viability objectives. The program should be orchestrated within a comprehensive and integrated approach to poverty reduction and rural development. The good governance of microcredit requires multiple organizational partnerships among the different government agencies, business sector and the civil society. Most importantly, the financial and technical support programs of the international donor community are absolutely necessary in the light of Philippine economic and fiscal challenges.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Good governance in microcredit strategy for poverty reduction: focus on western Mindanao, Philippines|
|Keywords:||microfinance; governance; microcredit; poverty; Zamboanga; Philippines|
|Subjects:||N - Economic History > N4 - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation > N45 - Asia including Middle East
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I30 - General
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O18 - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis ; Housing ; Infrastructure
L - Industrial Organization > L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise > L30 - General
L - Industrial Organization > L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise > L39 - Other
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I31 - General Welfare, Well-Being
L - Industrial Organization > L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise > L31 - Nonprofit Institutions ; NGOs ; Social Entrepreneurship
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O19 - International Linkages to Development ; Role of International Organizations
A - General Economics and Teaching > A1 - General Economics > A10 - General
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I32 - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I39 - Other
L - Industrial Organization > L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise > L38 - Public Policy
O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O1 - Economic Development > O17 - Formal and Informal Sectors ; Shadow Economy ; Institutional Arrangements
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I38 - Government Policy ; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
H - Public Economics > H8 - Miscellaneous Issues > H80 - General
D - Microeconomics > D0 - General > D00 - General
|Depositing User:||Frede Moreno|
|Date Deposited:||05. Jan 2012 01:48|
|Last Modified:||14. Feb 2013 05:38|
Asian Development Bank (ADB). “Governance: Sound Development Management.” http://www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/Governance. 2003.
Asian Development Bank (ADB). “Finance for the Poor.” Microfinance Development Strategy. http://www.adb.org. June 2000.
Asian Development Bank (ADB). “Microfinance: Financial Services for the Poor.” http://www.adb.org. 2002.
Bautista, Victoria A. “Readings in Governance of Poverty Alleviation.” Quezon City: University of the Philippines-Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Development. 2002.
Boeninger, Edgardo. “Governance and Development: Issues and Constraints.” Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1991. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. 1992.
Braibant, Guy. “Public Administration and Development.” International Review of Administrative Sciences. Vol. 62, 163-176. London: SAGE. 1996
Cariño, Ledivina V. “The Concept of Governance.” From Government to Governance: Reflections on the 1999 World Conference on Governance. Eastern Regional Organization for Public Administration (EROPA). 2000.
Chambers, Robert. “Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory.” London: Institute of Development Studies. 1992.
Chambers, Robert. “Challenging the Professions: Frontiers for Rural Development.” London: Intermediate Technology Publications. 1993.
Cooperative Development Authority (CDA). “Credit Management: A Handbook for Cooperatives.” Mnaila. 1994.
Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP). DONOR BRIEF No. 11. “Microfinance Means Financial Services for the Poor.” Washington, DC: The World Bank. http://www.cgap.org. March 2003.
Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP). DONOR BRIEF No. 2. “Microcredit: One of Many Intervention Strategies.” Washington, DC: The World Bank. http://www.cgap.org. April 2002.
Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP). DONOR BRIEF No. 6. “Making Sense of Microcredit Interest Rates.” Washington, DC: The World Bank. http://www.cgap.org. September 2002.
Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP). DONOR BRIEF No. 7. “Microfinance Transparency and Reporting to Donors.” Washington, DC: Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest. http://www.cgap.org. October 2002.
Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP). Focus Note No. 17. “Microfinance and Risk Management: A Client Perspective.” Washington, DC: Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest. http://www.cgap.org. May 17, 2000.
Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP). Focus Note No. 20. “Microfinance, Grants and Non-Financial Responses to Poverty Reduction: Where Does Microcredit Fit?” Washington, DC: Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest. http://www.cgap.org. May 2001.
Chan, Flerida C. “The Replication of the Grameen Bank Experience in the Philippines: An Experiment in Financial Services Delivery for Marginalized Groups.” Working Paper No. 89-02. Manila: Agricultural Credit Policy Council. 1989.
Chen, Martha Alter and Elizabeth Dunn. “Household Economic Portfolio.” Washington, D.C.: Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS)- Management Systems International. http://www.msi-inc.com. June 1996.
Chua, Ronald T., et. al. “Risk, Vulnerability, Assets and the Role of Financial Services in Reducing Vulnerability: A Study of the Women Clients of CARD Bay Laguna, Philippines.” A report prepared for the 2000/2001 World Development Report. October 1999.
Center on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP). “Reducing Poverty in Asia: Issues in Microcredit.” A Report of the Regional Workshop, 2-4 March 1999, Islamabad, Pakistan. Dhaka, Bangladesh. May 1999.
Cracknell, Basil Edward. “Evaluating Development Aid: Issues, Problems and Solutions.” London: SAGE Publications. 2000.
De Noose, Chris. “Microfinance Approach for the Future.” DOC 0161/01, Vers. 1.2. Brussels: World Savings Bank Institute. http://www.savings-banks.com. 7 January 2001.
Dunn, Elizabeth. “Households, Microenterprises, and Debt.” Washington, D.C.:Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS)-Management Systems International. http://www.msi-inc.com. June 1996.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “Agricultural Finance Revisited: Why?” Agricultural Finance Revisited, No. 1. Rome: FAO. http://www.fao.org. 1998.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “Better Practices in Agricultural Lending.” Agricultural Finance Revisited, No. 3. http://www.fao.org. Rome: FAO. 1999.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). “The State of Food and Agriculture 2000.” Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org. Rome: FAO. 2000.
Figura, Rachel Errett. “An End to Poverty through Microlending: An Examination of the Need for Credit by Poor, Rural Women and the Success of Microlending Programs.” New England Journal of International and Comparative Law. Volume 8, No. 1, (pp.157-182). 2002.
Fleishcer, et. al. “Transforming Top-Down Agricultural Extension to a Participatory System: A Study of Costs and Perspective Benefits in Egypt.” Public Administration and Development. Volume 22, No. 2. London: John Wiley and Sons. October 2002.
Frederickson, George H. “Towards a New Public Administration.” Toward a New Public Administration: The Monnowbrook Perspective. Frank Marini (ed.). Scranton, Pennsylvania: Chandler Publishing Company, pp. 309-331. 1971.
Fuglesang A. and Chandler D. “Participation as a Process: What We Can Learn from Grameen Bank, Bangladesh.” Dhaka, Bangladesh: Grameen Trust. 1993.
Gately, David. “Donors and Policymakers Can Make Microcredit Work for the Rural Poor.” International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). http://www.ifpri.cgiar.org/PRESSREL/013197.htm. 1997.
Grameen Bank. “Breaking the Vicious Vycle of Poverty through Microcredit.” http://www.grameen-info.org/bank/index.html. 2002.
Grameen Foundation. “Information on Microcredit.” USA: Grameen Foundation. http://www.gfusa.org/microcredit.html. 2002.
Hatch, John K., Amanda Penn and Sara Levine. “Innovations from the Field: A Daringly Brief Summary of a Huge Phenomenon.” Reference: ASA, 23/3 Block-pB, Khilji Road, Shyamoli, Mohamadpur, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh. http://www.asabd.org. June 2002.
Hossain, Mahabub. “Credit for Alleviation of Rural Poverty: The Grameen Bank in Bangladesh.” Research Report 65. International Food Policy Research Institute in collaboration with the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies. Dhaka, Bangladesh. February 1988.
Hossain M. 1984. “Credit for the rural poor: the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh.” Research Monograph 4. Dhaka (Bangladesh): Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies. 1984.
Hossain, Mahabub and Catalina P. Diaz. “Reaching the Poor with Effective Microcredit: An Evaluation of a Grameen Bank Replication in the Philippines.” Social Sciences Division International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Paper presented during the International workshop on Assessing the Impact of Agricultural Research on Poverty Alleviation, September 14-16, 1999, International Center for Tropical Agriculture, CIAT, Cali, Columbia.
Hung, Chi-kan Richard. “Banks, Microcredit Programs, and Rotating Savings and Credit Associations: Complementary Institutions in Credit Risk Management.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Indiana University. http://www.iu.edu. June 1999.
Khandker, Shahidur R., Baqui Khalily and Zahed Khan. “Grameen Bank: Performance and Sustainability.” Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. October 1995.
Khandaker S. “Grameen Bank: impact, costs and program sustainability.” Asian Development Review 14(1):97-130. 1996.
Klein, Brigitte, et.al. “Better Practices in Agricultural Lending.” Agricultural Finance Revisited No. 3. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. December 1999.
Lamberte, Mario and Martin Desrocher. “Efficiency and Expense Preference in the Philippines’ Cooperative Rural Banks.” Discussion Paper Series No. 2002-12. Makati City: Philippine Institute of Development Studies. http://www.pids.gov.ph. October 2002.
Lamberte, Mario B., Magdalena S. Casuga and Doreen Carla E. Erfe. “Credit Programs for the Poor: A Tale of Two Studies.” Policy Notes No. 99-06. Makati City: Philippine Institute of Development Studies. http://www.pids.gov.ph. June 1999.
Lariviere, Sylvain, et. al. “Key Issues in Microfinance and Orientations for the Future.” Discussion Series 0198. Document prepared as part of the “Strategic and Analytical Support for CIDA’s Interventions in Africa” project of the Chair for International Development of Laval University, funded by the Canadian International Development Agency, Ottawa, Canada. May 2002.
Leftwich, Adrian. “Governance, Democracy and Development in the Third World.” Third World Quarterly, Vol. 14, No.3, 1993.
Littlefield, Elizabeth, et. al. “Is Microfinance an Effective Strategy to Reach the Millennium Development Goals?” Focus Note No. 24. Washington, DC: Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest. http://www.cgap.org. January 2003.
Llanto, Gilberto M. “Sustainable Rural Finance: Policy and Design Issues.” PIDS Policy Notes No. 2001-04. Makati City: Philippine Institute of Development Studies. July 2001.
Llanto, Gilberto M. “Risk-Based Supervision of Banks Involved in Microfinance.” PIDS Policy Notes No. 2001-01. Makati City: Philippine Institute of Development Studies. January 2001.
Leedy, Paul D. “Practical Research: Planning and Design.” Merrill. 1997.
Liew, Jeff. “Observations on Micro-Credit Schemes in the Pacific: Making Micro-Credit More People-Centered.” ESHDP Working Paper. http://fiji-gov.apdip.net/microcredit/microcreditpac.html. May 1997.
Maclsaac, Norman. “The Role of Microcredit in Poverty Reduction and Promoting Gender Equity: A Discussion Paper.” Strategic Policy and Planning Division, Asia Branch, Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). June 1997.
Malhotra, Mohini. “Maximizing the Outreach of Microenterprise Finance: The Emerging Lessons of Successful Programs.” CGAP Focus Note No. 2. Wasington, D.C.: The World Bank-Consultative Groups to Assist the Poorest (CGAP). http://www.cgap.org/html/p_focus_notes15.html. October 1995.
Manlagñit, Ma. Chelo V. and Mario B. Lamberte. “Integrating Gender Perspectives in Evaluating the Efficiency of COFi: The Case of Credit Cooperatives in the Philippines.” Discussion Paper Series No. 2003-06. Makati City: Philippine Institute of Development Studies. http://www.pids.gov.ph. May 2003.
Mascarenhas, James. “Participatory Rural Appraisal and Participatory Learning Methods: Recent Experiences from MYRADA and South India.” In Rapid Assessment Procedures: Qualitative Methodologies for Planning and Evaluation of Health Related Programmes. Boston: International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries. 1992.
Mascarenhas, R.C. “Explaining Success in South Asian Rural Development: The Importance of Routine.” Public Administration and Development. Volume 13 No. 5. New York: Wiley and Sons. December 1993.
Mikkelsen, Britha. “Methods for Development Work and Research: A Guide for Practitioners.” London: SAGE. 1995.
Miller, Delbert C. “Handbook of Research Design and Social Measurement.” 5th edition. London: SAGE. 1991.
“The Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan, 2001-2004.” National Economic and Development Authority. April 30, 2001.
Mujeri, Mustafa K. and Lisa S. Singh. “Loan Repayment Behavior Among the Rural Poor: Overview on Project Experiences.” In Reducing Poverty in Asia: Issues in Microcredit. Report of the Center on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific Regional Workshop held on March 2-4 1999, Islamabad, Pakistan. Dhaka, Bangladesh: CIRDAP Press. May 1999.
National Statistical Coordination Board. “Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold.” www.nscb.gov.ph. 2002.
Neff, Gina. “Microcredit, Microresults.” Left Business Observer #74. http://www.panix.com/~dhenwood/Micro.html. October 1996.
New York Times. Sunday, February 16, 1997. http://www.grameen-nfo.org/mcredit/nytimes.html Norusis, Marija J. “SPSS 11.0: Guide to Data Analysis.” Chicago: SPSS, Inc. 2002. Office of the Press Secretary. “Healing the nation: The First 100 Days of the Macapagal-Arroyo Administration.” Manila: Malacañang. 30 April 2001. National Statistics Office http://www/nso.gov.ph. Ortiz, Jacqueline I. “Participatory Development Planning: The Bondoc Development Program Experience.” (unpublished doctoral dissertation). Quezon City: University of the Philippines-National College of Public Administration and Governance. 2002.
Osborne, David and Ted Gaebler. “Reinventing Government.” New York: Penguin. 1992.
Otero, Maria. “Governance and Ownership of Microfinance Institutions.” Bethesda, Maryland: Development Alternatives Incorporated. http://www.dai.org. October 2001. PCFC. Annual Report 2001. Pasig City: People’s Credit and Finance Corporation. Pitt, Mark M. and Shahidur R. Khandker. “Household and Intra-household Impact of the Grameen Bank and Similar Targeted Credit Programs in Bangladesh.” Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. May 1996.
Powell, W.W. and P.J. Di Maggio (eds.). “The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis.” Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1991.
Rea, Louis M. and Richard A. Parker. “Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide.” San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass Publishers. 1992.
Rengarajan, V. “A Demand-side Conceptualization of Microfinance.” United Kingdom: Alternative Finance. http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk. July 2001.
Remenyi, Joe. “Microfinance: A Panacea for Poverty?” Development Research Briefings. Centre for Development Studies, University College Dublin, Ireland. 1999.
Reyes, Celia M. “The Poverty Fight: Have We Made an Impact?” Philippine Institute of Development Studies (PIDS) Discussion Paper Series No. 2002-20. December 2002.
Root, Hilton. “Small Countries Big Lessons: Governance and the Rise of East Asia.” Oxford University Press for Asian Development Bank. 1996.
Rutherford, Stuart. “Raising the Curtain on the "Microfinancial Services Era.” Focus Note No. 15. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank-Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest. http://www.cgap.org/html/p_focus_notes17.html. May 2000.
Saltmarshe, Douglas. “The Resource Profile Approach: A Kosovo Case Study.” Public Administration and Development. Volume 22, No. 2 (179-190). London: John Wiley and Sons. 2002.
SARC-TSARRD. “Primer on Credit Programs for Small Farmers.” In Sustainable Agrarian Reform Communities-Technical Support to Agrarian Reform and Rural Development. Department of Agrarian Reform, Diliman, Quezon City. October, 2000.
Satyamurti and Haokip. “Micro-finance: Concepts and Delivery Channels in India.” New Delhi: All India Association for Micro Enterprise Development (AIAMED). 2002.
Schreiner, Mark. “Scoring: The Next Breakthrough in Microcredit.” Occasional Paper No. 7. World Bank-Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest. Washington, D.C.: WB-CAGP. Website: http://www.cgap.org. January 2003.
Scrimshaw, Nevin S. and Gary R. Gleason, eds. “Rapid Appraisal Procedures: Qualitative Methodologies for Planning and Evaluation of Health Related Programmes.” Boston: International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries (IFDC). 1992.
Sebstad, Jennefer and Monique Cohen. “Microfinance, Risk Management, and Poverty: Synthesis Study Based on Field Studies Conducted by Ronald T. Chua, Paul Mosley, Graham A. N. Wright, Hassan Zaman.” Washington, D.C.:Assessing the Impact of Microenterprise Services (AIMS)-Management Systems International. http://www.msi-inc.com. March 2000.
Sebstad, Jennefer, et. al. “Assessing the Impacts of Microenteprise Interventions: A Framework for Analysis.” Washington, D.C.: AIMS-MSI. http://www.mip.org. 1995.
Seibel, Hans Dieter. “Grameen Replicators: Do They Reach the Poor, and Are They Sustainable?” Working Paper No. 1998-8. Cologne: University of Cologne Development Research Center. 1998.
Seibel, Hans Dieter and Dolores Torres. “Are Grameen Replications Sustainable, and Do They Reach the Poor? The Case of CARD Rural Bank in the Philippines.” The Journal of Microfinance, Volume 1, Number 1, Fall 1999. In Alternative Finance. http://www.alternative-finance.org.uk. 1999.
Seibel, Hans Dieter, et. al. “Microfinance in the Philippines: An Assessment of Viability, Sustainability and Outreach among Grameen Replicators.” Working Paper No. 1997-4. Cologne: University of Cologne Development Research Center. 1997.
Schneider, Hartmut. “Microfinance for the Poor?” Development Center Seminars. Paris: OECD and IFAD. http://www.ifad.org. 1997.
Shams, Khalid M. “Governments Must Side with the Poor.” Public Administration and Development. Volume 15 No. 3. New York: Wiley and Sons. 1995.
Simanovitz, Anton. “Ensuring Impact: Reaching the Poorest while Building Financially Self-sufficient Institutions, and Showing Improvements in the Lives of the Poorest Women and their Families.” UK: Institute of Development Studies. 2002.
Swider, Paul. Microcredit: A Greenstar Research Brief. http://www.greenstar.org/microcredit/microcredit-brief.pdf. April 2001.
Tashakkori, Abbas and Charles Teddlie. “Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.” Applied Social Research Methods Series. Volume 46. SAGE Publications. 1998.
Teves, Gary B. “Government Financial Institutions & Cooperatives: Partners for Progress.” Speech delivered during the 6th National Cooperative Summit held in Cagayan de Oro City on November 28, 2002. Makati: Land Bank of the Philippines. http://www.landbank.com/landbank/htm/fr_President_Ceo.htm.
United Nations (UN). “Role of Microcredit in Eradication of Poverty.” In Report of the Secretary General. UN General Assembly Resolution No. 52/194. http://www.grameen-info.org/mcredit/unreport.html. December 18, 1997.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESSA). “Building Partnerships for Governance.” Asian Review pf Public Administration XI (1): 3-15. 1999.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). “Reconceptualizing Governance (Discussion Paper 2).” New York. 1997.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). “Second Country Cooperation Framework for the Philippines (2002-2004).” New York. 07 November 2001. http://www.undp.org.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN- ESCAP). “What is Good Governance?” http://www.unescap.org/huset/gg/governance.htm. 2002.
Warner, Michael. “Consensus’ Participation: An Example for Protected Areas Planning.” Public Administration and Development. Volume 7, No. 4. London: John Wiley and Sons. 1997.
World Bank. “Microlending Gains Momentum in Bangladesh: Poverty Alleviation Project will help NGOs Expand Microlending to Poor Women.” Press Release, NEWS RELEASE NO. 97/1125. http://www.worldbank.org. September 18, 1996.
World Bank. “Using Microcredit to Advance Women.” Prem Notes No. 8. Washington, D.C.: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. http://www.worldbank.org. November 1998.
World Bank. “Improving the Lives of the Poor through Growth and Empowerment.” The World Bank Group’s Country Assistance Strategy for the Philippines, 2003-2005. Washington, D.C. http://www.worldbank.org. May 2002.
World Summit on Microcredit (1997 and 2002). http://www.gdrc.org.
Xiaoguang, Kang. “Report on the survey of microcredit experiment in Yunnan Province.” Paper presented at the UNDP sponsored training course on Good Governance for Poverty Reduction in Economic Transition as part of the Economic Development Management in Asia and the Pacific Network (1–5 June 1998), held at CIRD, Hainan, People’s Republic of China. 1998.