Mishra, SK (2007): Analysis of Gender Disparity in Meghalaya by Various Types of Composite Indices.
Download (269kB) | Preview
Subjugation of women in certain spheres of life is very common in the patriarchal societies and it has a long history. In India, women have little social or economic independence. They are treated inequitably at home as much as at the workplace outside. Perhaps, it is so for the Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. However, Meghlaya, a state in North East India, presents a case different than the rest of the country at large (except Kerala and some other pockets). A very large majority of population in the state belongs to three tribes, Garo, Jaintia and Khasi, well known for their being matrilineal (and matrifocal). In this paper we investigate how women in Meghalaya perform, vis-à-vis men, in the socio-economic sphere. The investigation is based on Census of India-2001 data. Two sets of nine variables that measure socio-economic inclusion of people in development have been obtained, first for men and the second for women, and from these variables a composite index has finally been constructed. Many methods of constructing a composite index are discussed and applied on the data for obtaining loadings on the variables. Analytic methods (e.g. principal component/factor analysis) and synthetic methods (MSAR, MEFAR and MMAR) have been compared empirically. We find that the synthetic methods perform better than the analytic methods in representing the constituent variables judiciously and meaningfully.
Do matrifocal societies favour women in socio-economic sphere and help achieve gender equality? We conclude that indeed they do so. The tribes of Meghalaya whose societies are organized on matrifocal principles have obtained much greater gender equality than the societies (e.g. Hindu and Muslim) that are organized on the patriarchal principles.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Institution:||North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong (India)|
|Original Title:||Analysis of Gender Disparity in Meghalaya by Various Types of Composite Indices|
|Keywords:||Gender equality; Patriarchy; Matriarchy; Matrifocal; Matrilineal; Meghalaya; India; Tribes; Khasi; Garo; Jaintia; composite index; principal component; factor analysis; extraction; rotation; inclusive; synthetic; analytic; indices; absolute correlation; entropy-like function; maximin; Differential Evolution; North East; Hindu; Christian; Muslim; religion|
|Subjects:||O - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth > O5 - Economywide Country Studies > O53 - Asia including Middle East
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J7 - Labor Discrimination > J71 - Discrimination
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z12 - Religion
C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods > C4 - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics > C43 - Index Numbers and Aggregation
|Depositing User:||Sudhanshu Kumar Mishra|
|Date Deposited:||18. Jun 2007|
|Last Modified:||19. Feb 2013 02:18|
· Davis, E.G. (1971) The First Sex, G.P. Putnam, New York. · Dunlop, J.E. and Velkoff, V.A (1999) “Women and the Economy in India”, International Programs Center, U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census. http://www.census.gov/ipc/prod/wid-9802.pdf · Firestone, S. (1972) The Dialectic of Sex, Bantam, New York. · Harman, H.H. and Jones, W.H. (1966) “Factor Analysis by Minimizing Residuals (Minres). Psychometrica, 31, pp. 351-369 · Kim, J., & Mueller, C.W. (1978). Introduction to Factor Analysis: What It Is and How to Do It., Sage Univ. Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA. · Liddle, J. and Joshi, R. (1986) Daughters of Independence: Gender, Caste and Class in India, New Brunswick, NJ. · Mill, J.S. (1869) Subjection of Women, Reprinted by the MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1970 e-copy available at http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/m/mill/john_stuart/m645s/ · Mishra, S. K. (2007-a) "A Comparative Study of Various Inclusive Indices and the Index Constructed By the Principal Components Analysis" SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=990831. · Mishra, S. K. (2007-b) "Socio-Economic Exclusion of Different Religious Communities in Meghalaya", SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=992122. · Mishra, S. K. (2007-c) "A Note on Human Development Indices with Income Equalities" SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=992854 · Mishra, S. K. (2007-d) “A FORTRAN Computer Program for Construction of Composite Indices: Alternative to the Indices obtained by the Principal Components Analysis” http://www1.webng.com/economics/make-indices.html. · Prime Minister’s Office, Japan (1998) The Present Status of Gender Equality and Measures: Second Report on the Plan for Gender Equality 2000, Japan. http://www.gender.go.jp/english/plan2000/1999/p1c1.html · Reed, E. (1975) Woman's Evolution: From Matriarchal Clan to Patriarchal Family, Pathfinder Press, New York. · Rodrigue, C.M. (1987) “The Origins of Women’s Subjugation: A Tentative Reconstruction”, presented at the Feminist Geography Workshop, Association of American Geographers, Portland, Oregon . http://www.csulb.edu/~rodrigue/aag87.html · Veblen, T.B. (1899) The Theory of the Leisure Class, The New American library, New York. · Wikipedia: “Matriarchy” at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matriarchy