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The Relationship between Societal attributes, Feminine Leadership & Management Style: Responses from Pakistan's Urban Region Female-Owned Businesses

Faizan, Riffat and Haque, Adnan ul (2016): The Relationship between Societal attributes, Feminine Leadership & Management Style: Responses from Pakistan's Urban Region Female-Owned Businesses. Published in: European Journal of Business and Management , Vol. 8, No. 23 (31 August 2016): pp. 171-191.

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Abstract

Research paper investigates various societal attributes including; male employees' performances, living standards, level of poverty, and employment opportunities in relation with feminine leadership and style of management in urban regions of Pakistan's SMEs and Cottage Industries. 'Socio-Anthropological Paradigm' undertaken for exploring research variables. Epistemology under Post-positivism philosophy is used. Moreover, considering mixed method, 4 points Likert scale survey questionnaire and open ended interviews are used as research instruments for data collection. The survey sample size contains 37 female entrepreneurs and interviews with 30 male employees working under feminine leadership and style of management through quota, stratified, and convenience sampling in Pakistan's five urban regions. The results confirmed positive relationship between feminine leadership and management style and various societal attributes. Furthermore, male varying performances are due to situational commitment. Moreover, in male dominated society, cultural barriers and lack of governmental support is limiting the female entrepreneurship to urban regions.

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