Bachev, Hrabrin (2011): Management of chemical and biological risks in agri-food chain.
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Paper presents diverse modes of governance of chemical and biological risks in agri-food sector, assesses their efficiency, complementarities, and challenges, and suggests recommendations for public policies improvement. It defines governance as system of social order responsible for particular behavior of agents; specify various (institutions, market, private, public) mechanisms of risk governance and (natural, technological, behavioral etc.) factors of efficiency; and suggest a framework for analysis and improvement of risk governance. New opportunities for risks governance relate to: modernization of technologies and institutional environment; specialization, concentration, and integration; “willingness to pay” and consumers and media involvement; national and transnational cooperation. Risk management challenges are associated with: new threats and risks; separation of risk-creation from risk-taking; vulnerability of mass production, distribution and consumption; high adaptation and compliance costs; unequal norms, implementing capability, policies and private strategies; public failures; and informal sector. Policies improvement is to incorporate governance issues taking into account type of threats and risks, specific factors, and comparative benefits and cost (including third-party, transacting, time); employ more hybrid modes introducing and enforcing new rights, and supporting private and collective initiatives; give greater support to multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research on factors, modes, and impacts of risk-governance.