Usman-Laput, Lea (2005): Magison-ison: A parallel reality construction of war among Joloano Muslim Survivors in Sulu, Philippines.
Download (1MB) | Preview
The Mindanao conflict in Southern Philippines is a long-standing controversy that has eluded comprehensive solutions. Despite efforts of the Government of the Philippines (GRP) and the representatives from the peoples of Mindanao in undertaking peace initiatives, “the war:” continues.
The establishment of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) as embodied in an organic law provided in the 1986 Philippine Constitution has not seemed to bring about the much-anticipated progress. Even with the so-called “autonomy” already in place to substantiate the clamor of the Muslims for self-rule in the Tripoli Agreement, conflict has escalated signifying unrest among the people.
Instead of dealing with the problem from the standpoint of an “outsider” who may know about the Mindanao conflict from what they hear, the study attempted to get a glimpse of “the war” from the “insiders” who have survived and lived to tell their own stories. From the perspectives of two distinct peoples of Sulu- the Christian and Muslim Joloanos, the study was able to penetrate the heart of conflict in Mindanao.
The study was able to visualize “the 1974 war” and the on-going conflicts from two cultural lenses and in the process was able to demonstrate a “parallel reality construction” among the war survivors who provided interesting insights of “the war” from their “fantasy themes”.
The research has not only surfaced conflicting notions in their revelations of “the war” as experienced (subjective realities) but has generated elements of “convergence” as their experiences were correlated with the institutionalized beliefs of war (objective realities) or the war as told. Despite distinct subjective realities, they have shown proclivity towards parallel perceptions.
The Joloano war survivors’ subjective realities as applied in the study include their psycho-social trauma of the war and their portrayal of the role of “the other” culture as co-survivors of war. Among the elderly, descriptions of their fears and negative emotions have strongly echoed “old prejudices”. Among the middle-aged, “prudence” and tact in their narratives revealed a tendency to rationalize and to show sympathy towards “the other” culture. From the young war survivors a propensity towards confronting their dilemma suggested optimism and resilience in their perceptions.
Transitions in the subjective realities of the war survivors are apparent across culture and age. Opposing views are very strong among the elderly except for one Christian and a Muslim who are associated with “the other” culture by reason of marriage with them. The older Christian Joloanos for instance believe that the war was “unnecessary” while the older Muslims were convinced it was “inevitable”. The study has strongly shown that “shifts” in perceptions could be anchored on the participants’ religious beliefs and changing circumstances that come with age, political set-up, economic climate and inter-marriage among others.
Their reactions towards the prevailing issues of war (media war issues, other concepts and beliefs of war) which constitute the institutionalized-objective realities as defined in the study are “convergent” despite distinct experiences and personal circumstances. They have for example generally shown disagreement towards the commonly held concept that the mass media function to crystallize relevant issues, like the war in Mindanao. The majority of the co-authors furthermore negated the belief of the general public that “Christians and Muslims can never co-exist peacefully, and that the 1974 war was a form of “jihad” or a religious war among Muslims.
In the study therefore, communication has been proven once again to play a vital role in clarifying issues of the Mindanao conflict. It performed an emancipatory role in ways that provided rhetorical and psychological relief by allowing an occasion for war survivors to deconstruct their realities through their narratives. And to reconstruct their meaning of war by actively taking part in correcting prevailing notions of war to bring about the much needed change in a war-torn community like Sulu.
|Item Type:||MPRA Paper|
|Original Title:||Magison-ison: A parallel reality construction of war among Joloano Muslim Survivors in Sulu, Philippines|
|English Title:||Magison-ison: A Parallel Reality Construction of War among Joloano Muslim Survivors in Sulu, Philippines|
|Subjects:||I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I30 - General
L - Industrial Organization > L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise > L30 - General
A - General Economics and Teaching > A3 - Collective Works > A39 - Other
A - General Economics and Teaching > A3 - Collective Works > A32 - Collective Volumes
Y - Miscellaneous Categories > Y4 - Dissertations (unclassified) > Y40 - Dissertations (unclassified)
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I31 - General Welfare, Well-Being
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z19 - Other
A - General Economics and Teaching > A3 - Collective Works > A31 - Collected Writings of Individuals
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z13 - Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology ; Social and Economic Stratification
L - Industrial Organization > L3 - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise > L31 - Nonprofit Institutions ; NGOs ; Social Entrepreneurship
N - Economic History > N4 - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation > N40 - General, International, or Comparative
D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D71 - Social Choice ; Clubs ; Committees ; Associations
H - Public Economics > H1 - Structure and Scope of Government > H11 - Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government
Z - Other Special Topics > Z0 - General > Z00 - General
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J17 - Value of Life ; Forgone Income
Y - Miscellaneous Categories > Y8 - Related Disciplines > Y80 - Related Disciplines
J - Labor and Demographic Economics > J1 - Demographic Economics > J18 - Public Policy
H - Public Economics > H1 - Structure and Scope of Government > H19 - Other
N - Economic History > N4 - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation > N45 - Asia including Middle East
N - Economic History > N3 - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy > N35 - Asia including Middle East
Z - Other Special Topics > Z1 - Cultural Economics ; Economic Sociology ; Economic Anthropology > Z10 - General
H - Public Economics > H1 - Structure and Scope of Government > H10 - General
A - General Economics and Teaching > A3 - Collective Works > A30 - General
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I39 - Other
D - Microeconomics > D7 - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making > D74 - Conflict ; Conflict Resolution ; Alliances ; Revolutions
I - Health, Education, and Welfare > I3 - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty > I38 - Government Policy ; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
Y - Miscellaneous Categories > Y9 - Other > Y90 - Other
|Depositing User:||Lea Usman-Laput|
|Date Deposited:||05. Jan 2012 01:47|
|Last Modified:||22. Feb 2015 11:48|
Abubakar, Carmen A. 2000. SPCPD and Economic Development in SZOPAD; High Expectation, Low Output. Kasarinlan Vol. 15 No. 2, Quezon City, Philippines.
Agar, Michael H. 1998. Speaking of Ethnography. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Beverly Hills.
Alfonso, Herminia Corazon M. 1992. Socially Shared Inquiry: A Self-Reflexive Emancipatory Communicatiuon Approach to Social Re-search. Quezon City: Great Books Trading.
Braid, Florangel Rosario. 2002. In Search of Commonalities: Muslim and Christian Cultures. Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication and the UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines. Greenhills M.M. Philippines.
Burr, Vivien 1997. “A Paper on Social Constructionism and Psychology”. The New Psychologist. M.B.A. Dyer-Smith ed. London: Routledge.
Cabel, Oswalda 1989. A paper on Local Governance and Public Administration the Sulu Experience: An Overview. Sulu Provincial Archive (unpublished).
Coffey, Amanda 1999. The Ethnogaphy of Self; field work and the Representation of identity. Sage Publication, Thousand Oaks: California.
Crispin, Maslog 1990. A Manual on Peace Reporting in Mindanao, Philippine. Press Institute: Intramuros Manila, Philippines.
Cureg, Myrna C. 2004. Panonono: Transmission of Institutionalized Beliefs and Practices in the Ibanag Life Cycle in the Changing Communication Environment. Doctoral Dissertation. University of the Philippines, Quezon City.
Gergen, Kenneth J. 1991. The Saturated Self. Basic Books: New York
________________1994. Reality and Relationships, Meanings in Social Construction., Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
________________1993. Narrators and the Self as Relationships. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York Academic Press.
Gomez, Hilario M. 2000. The Moro Rebellion and the Search for Peace: A Study on Christian-Muslim Relations in the Philippines. Silisilah Publication, Zamboanga City, Philippines.
Gowing, Peter G. 1965. Islands under the Cross: the Story of the Church in the Philippines.Manila National Council of Churches in the Philippines.
_________________1969. Christians and Moros: The Confrontation of Christianity and Islam in The Philippines. Southeast Asia Journal of theology X/2-3.
_________________1978. Muslim Filipinos: Heritage and Horizon. Quezon City New Day Publisher.
Gutierrez, Gonzales, Mercado, Rocamora, Vitug et. al. 1997. Rebels, Warlords and Ulama. Institute for Popular Democracy. Quezon City, Philippines.
Hammersley, Martin and Atkinsons 1995. Ethnography Principles in Practice Londom, Routledge.
Huntington, Samuel 1997. The Clash of Civilization and the Remaking of World Order “On the issue of Social Cleavage” International Herald Tribune. February 2004.
Klaus, Krippendorf. 1991. The power of communication and the communication of power:toward an ethical theory of communication. Communication. Vol 12.
_________________ 1995. An Essay on “Undoing Power”. Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12, 2; 101-132, The Annesberg School of Communication University of Pennsylvania.
Littlejohn, Stephen W. 1996. Theories of Human Communication. Belmont California, Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Maulana, Wahiduddin Khan 2002. The True Jihad.. Foodword Books Pvt. Ltd. Nizamuddin West Market, New Delhi.
Mastura, Datu Michael O.1985. The Crisis in the MNLF Leadership and the Dilemma of the Muslim Autonomy Movement, papers on the conferences of the Tripoli Agreement, Problems and Prospects, Sept. 13-14, Manila International Studies Institute University of the Philippines.
Majul, Caesar Adib 1983. The Contemporary Muslim Movement in Philippines, Berkley, Misan Press.
Mc Kenna Thomas M 1992. Martial Law, Moro Nationalism and Traditional leadership in Cotabato. Filipinas 18; 1-17.
Nagasura, Madale 2000. Muslim-Christian Relation in the Phippines “The Hijrah Towards Muslim-Christian Dialogue; Problems and Options”, Capitol Journal on Culture and Society Vol XII (No. 1).
_______________ 2001. “An Inter-Ethnic Marriage of a Maranao and an Ilocano”. A Paper published for Capitol Journal on Culture and Society, Cagayan de Oro City.
Nietzche, Firedrich 1967. The Will to Power. New York: Random House
Perspective on Media and Peace Reportage 2000. Office of the President for the Peace Process and the Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility OPAPP-CMFR. Manila, Philippines.
Pasumbal, Divina T. 2000. Social Constructions of Female Singlehood External Reality vs Internal Reality. Unpublished Dissertation. University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication. UP Press: Quezon City, Philippines.
Pye, Lucian W. 1966. “Communication and Political Development”, Aspects of Political Development. Little Brown and Company, Boston 133-171.
Rodil, Rudy B. 1986 “A Reflections on the Moro Right to Self-Determination”. Moro Courier I, 3, 7-14.
Saleeby, Najeeb M. 1905. Studies in Moro History, Law and Religion. Department of Interior Ethnological Survey Publications, Vol 4 No. 1, Manila Bureau of Printing.
Scott, James C. 1990. Domination and the Art of Resistance. Hidden Transcripts, New Haven, Yale University Press.
The Socio-economic Profile of Jolo 2000. Provincial Planning and Budget Office (PPBO) Jolo, Sulu.
Tan, Samuel K..1993. The Socio-economic Dimension of Moro Secessionism, UP-CIDS. Quezon City.
Ututalum, Kristy and Veronica Villavicencia 2001. “Unfolding the Challenges of Peace in Mindanao”. UNESCO Gender and Culture for Peace Project. A paper presented in Jakarta.
Wernstedt, Frederick L. and Paul D. Simkins 1965. “Migrations and Settlements of Mindanao”. Journal Asian Studies 24 (1); 83-103.
www.CSIS.org Center for Strategic and International Studies. 1800 K. Street N.W. Washington D.C. The Israeli-Palestinian War.